Community-based health insurance and social protection policy
AbstractOf all the risks facing poor households, health risks pose the greatest threat to their lives and livelihoods. A health shock adds health expenditures to the burden of the poor precisely at the time when they can afford it the least.One of the ways that poor communities manage health risks, in combination with publicly financed health care services, are community-based health insurance schemes (CBHIs). These are small scale, voluntary health insurance programs, organized and managed in a participatory manner. They are designed to be simple and affordable, and to draw on resources of social solidarity and cohesion to overcome problems of small risk pools, moral hazard, fraud, exclusion and cost-escalation. Less than 10 percent of the informal sector population in the developing nations has health coverage from a CBHI, but the number of such schemes is growing rapidly. On average, CBHIs recover between a quarter to a half of health service costs. As a social protection device, they have been shown to be effective in reducing out-of-pocket payments of their members, and in improving access to health services. Many schemes do fail. Problems, such as weak management, poor quality government health services, and the limited resources that local population can mobilize to finance health care, can impede success.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Social Protection Discussion Papers with number 32545.
Date of creation: 01 Mar 2005
Date of revision:
Health Economics&Finance; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Poverty Assessment; Safety Nets and Transfers; Insurance&Risk Mitigation;
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- Jack, William, 2000. "Health insurance reform in four Latin American countries : theory and practice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2492, The World Bank.
- Bhattamishra, Ruchira & Barrett, Christopher B., 2010. "Community-Based Risk Management Arrangements: A Review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 923-932, July.
- Greg Brunner & Pablo Gottret & Birgit Hansl & Vijayasekar Kalavakonda & Somil Nagpal & Nicole Tapay, 2012. "Private Voluntary Health Insurance : Consumer Protection and Prudential Regulation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13093, October.
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