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A contingency approach to marketing mix adaptation and performance in international marketing relationships


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  • Lages, Luis Filipe
  • Jap, Sandy D.


In this research, the authors extend a contingency perspective of international marketing in an exporting context by considering how internal and external forces of the firm explain adaptation of the marketing mix in export markets. The impact of marketing strategy adaptation and past performance satisfaction on current period satisfaction with performance is also considered. A survey of over 500 export managers indicates that external forces play a greater role in explaining marketing strategy adaptation than do internal forces. Moreover, satisfaction with performance improvement in the current year is affected (i) directly by the internal forces of the firm, (ii) indirectly by external forces, and (iii) both directly and indirectly by satisfaction with the preceding years export performance. Implications for the management of exporting relationships also are discussed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia in its series FEUNL Working Paper Series with number wp411.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:unl:unlfep:wp411

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Postal: Campus de Campolide, 1099-032 Lisboa
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Related research

Keywords: international marketing; exporting relationships; performance; adaptation-standardization; contingency theory;


References listed on IDEAS
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  1. JS Armstrong & Terry Overton, 2005. "Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys," General Economics and Teaching, EconWPA 0502044, EconWPA.
  2. Leonidou, Leonidas C. & Katsikeas, Constantine S. & Samiee, Saeed, 2002. "Marketing strategy determinants of export performance: a meta-analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 51-67, January.
  3. Fraser, Cynthia & Hite, Robert E., 1990. "Impact of international marketing strategies on performance in diverse global markets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 249-262, May.
  4. V H Kirpalani & N B Macintosh, 1980. "International Market Effectiveness of Technology-Oriented Small Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(3), pages 81-90, September.
  5. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
  6. Montgomery, David B. & Lages, Luis Filipe, 2001. "Export Assistance, Price Adaptation to the Foreign Market, and Annual Export Performance Improvement: A Structural Model Examination," Research Papers, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business 1700, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  7. Kenneth E. Boulding, 1956. "General Systems Theory--The Skeleton of Science," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 2(3), pages 197-208, April.
  8. Peter G P Walters, 1986. "International Marketing Policy: A Discussion of the Standardization Construct and its Relevance for Corporate Policy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(2), pages 55-69, June.
  9. Warren J Bilkey, 1978. "An Attempted Integration of the Literature on the Export Behavior of Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 33-46, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz, 2008. "Determinants of export performance in textile industries of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 36160, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Fernandes, Joana Cosme & Lages, Luis Filipe, 2002. "The SERPVAL scale: a multi-item scale for measuring service personal values," FEUNL Working Paper Series, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia wp423, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.


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