Who funds technology-based small firms? Evidence from Belgium
AbstractUsing an original survey sample of 103 unquoted Belgian technology-based small firms (TBSFs), we examine the capital structure of start-up companies during their consecutive development stages. We find that internal funds, either alone as personal savings or in combination with family and friends, to be the primary source of financing. Personal funds of the founders are used to finance the start of 82% of TBSFs. Commercial bank and government funds are the most important sources of external finance for TBSFs subsequent to start-up. Most founders agreed that business angels and venture capitalists play a greater role at later stages. However, once granted, more substantial amounts of funding come from venture capitalists. There is also evidence that suggests a change in the mix of internal and external sources of finance. Finally, our findings based on founders' scores in raising external funds suggest a call for urgent policy action to improve access to and availability of early-stage entrepreneurial finance in Belgium. We discuss our findings in light of the capital structure of small firms relating to TBSFs.
Download InfoTo our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series ULB Institutional Repository with number 2013/6387.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: Forthcoming
Other versions of this item:
- A. Bozkaya & B. Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie, 2008. "Who Funds Technology-Based Small Firms? Evidence From Belgium," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1-2), pages 97-122.
- ANT Bozkaya & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2004. "Who Funds Technology-Based Small Firms? Evidence from Belgium," Working Papers CEB 04-027.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
- M21 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Economics - - - Business Economics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Thomas Hatzichronoglou, 1997. "Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 1997/2, OECD Publishing.
- Hellmann, Thomas F. & Puri, Manju, 2000.
"Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-up Firms: Empirical Evidence,"
1661, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, 02.
- Mayer, Colin, 2001.
"Financing the New Economy. Financial Institutions and Corporate Governance,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Mayer, Colin, 2002. "Financing the New Economy: financial institutions and corporate governance," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 311-326, June.
- Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-400, September.
- Rosen, Harvey S., 1998. "The future of entrepreneurial finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 1105-1107, August.
- Hayne E. Leland and David H. Pyle., 1976.
"Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation,"
Research Program in Finance Working Papers
41, University of California at Berkeley.
- Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-87, May.
- Giudici, Giancarlo & Paleari, Stefano, 2000. " The Provision of Finance to Innovation: A Survey Conducted among Italian Technology-Based Small Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 37-53, February.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Audretsch, David B & Vivarelli, Marco, 1996. " Firms Size and R&D Spillovers: Evidence from Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 249-58, June.
- N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998.
"The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
- Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
- Zsuzsanna Fluck & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Harvey S. Rosen, 1998. "Where Does the Money Come From? The Financing of Small Entrepreneurial Enterprises," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-038, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- Bozkaya, Ant & Romain, Astrid & Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van, 2003.
"Surveying Technology-Based Small Firms: A Perspective From Belgium,"
IIR Working Paper
03-23, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Astrid Romain & ANT Bozkaya & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe, 2003. "Surveying technology-based small firms: a perspective from Belgium," Working Papers CEB 04-020.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Freear, John & Sohl, Jeffrey E. & Wetzel, William Jr., 1994. "Angels and non-angels: Are there differences?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 109-123, March.
- Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
- Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Manigart, Sophie & Struyf, Carol, 1997. " Financing High Technology Startups in Belgium: An Explorative Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 125-35, April.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
- Josh Lerner, 2002. "When Bureaucrats Meet Entrepreneurs: The Design of Effective "Public Venture Capital" Programmes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages F73-F84, February.
- Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mike Wright, 1998. "Venture Capital and Private Equity: A Review and Synthesis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 521-570.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
- Hoewer, Daniel & Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2011.
"An information economics perspective on main bank relationships and firm R&D,"
Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies
2011,19, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Hoewer, Daniel & Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2011. "An information economics perspective on main bank relationships and firm R&D," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-055, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Michael Peneder, 2009.
"The impact of venture capital on innovation behaviour and firm growth,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 83-107, November.
- Michael Peneder, 2010. "The Impact of Venture Capital on Innovation Behaviour and Firm Growth," WIFO Working Papers 363, WIFO.
- Susan Coleman & Alicia M. Robb, 2011. "Financing Strategies of New Technology-based Firms," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 1, pages 01-18, August.
- Brown, Martin & Degryse, Hans & Höwer, Daniel & Penas, María Fabiana, 2012. "How do banks screen innovative firms? Evidence from start-up panel data," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-032, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Joël Ludvigsen, 2009. "Decision time in Belgium: an experiment as to how business angels evaluate investment opportunities," Working Papers CEB 09-037.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Antonelli, Cristiano & Teubal, Morris, 2008. "Venture Capital as a Mechanism for Knowledge Governance: New Markets and Innovation-Led Economic Growth," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200805, University of Turin.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Benoit Pauwels).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.