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Financial Constraints and the Margins of FDI

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  • Buch, Claudia M.
  • Kesternich, Iris
  • Lipponer, Alexander
  • Schnitzer, Monika

Abstract

Recent literature on multinational firms has stressed the importance of low productivity as a barrier to the cross-border expansion of firms. But firms may also need external finance to shoulder the costs of entering foreign markets. We develop a model of multinational firms facing real and financial barriers to foreign direct investment (FDI), and we analyze their impact on the FDI decision (the extensive margin) and foreign affiliate sales (the intensive margin). We provide empirical evidence based on a detailed dataset of German multinationals which contains information on parent-level and affiliate-level financial constraints as well as on the location the foreign affiliates. We find that financial factors constrain firms’ foreign investment decisions, an effect felt in particular by large firms. Financial constraints at the parent level matter for the extensive, but less so for the intensive margin. For the intensive margin, financial constraints at the affiliate level are relatively more important.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich in its series Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems with number 272.

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Date of creation: Sep 2009
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Handle: RePEc:trf:wpaper:272

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Keywords: multinational firms; heterogeneity; productivity; financial constraints;

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  1. Harrison, Ann E. & Love, Inessa & McMillan, Margaret S., 2004. "Global capital flows and financing constraints," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 269-301, October.
  2. Thierry Mayer & Gianmarco Ottaviano, 2008. "The Happy Few: The Internationalisation of European Firms," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 135-148, May.
  3. James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, December.
  4. Russ, Katheryn Niles, 2007. "The endogeneity of the exchange rate as a determinant of FDI: A model of entry and multinational firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 344-372, April.
  5. Thomas Chaney, 2013. "Liquidity Constrained Exporters," NBER Working Papers 19170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Berman, Nicolas & Héricourt, Jérôme, 2010. "Financial factors and the margins of trade: Evidence from cross-country firm-level data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 206-217, November.
  7. Brusco, Sandro & Panunzi, Fausto, 2000. "Reallocation of Corporate Resources and Managerial Incentives in Internal Capital Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 2532, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Russ, Katheryn, 2004. "The Endogeneity of the Exchange Rate as a Determinant of FDI: A Model of Money, Entry, and Multinational Firms," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9xr4f238, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  9. Andrew B. Bernard & Jonathan Eaton & J. Bradford Jensen & Samuel Kortum, 2000. "Plants and Productivity in International Trade," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development 105, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
  10. Greenaway, David & Guariglia, Alessandra & Kneller, Richard, 2007. "Financial factors and exporting decisions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 377-395, November.
  11. Buch, Claudia M. & Kesternich, Iris & Lipponer, Alexander & Schnitzer, Monika, 2010. "Exports versus FDI revisited: does finance matter?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2010,03, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  12. Kaplan, Steven N & Zingales, Luigi, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215, February.
  13. Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Yeaple, Stephen & Helpman, Elhanan & Melitz, Marc, 2004. "Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," Scholarly Articles 3229098, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  15. James R. Brown & Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 2009. "Financing Innovation and Growth: Cash Flow, External Equity, and the 1990s R&D Boom," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 151-185, 02.
  16. Stein, Jeremy C., 2003. "Agency, information and corporate investment," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 111-165 Elsevier.
  17. Bayraktar, Nihal & Sakellaris, Plutarchos & Vermeulen, Philip, 2005. "Real versus financial frictions to capital investment," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 0566, European Central Bank.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Joachim Wagner, 2012. "Credit constraints and exports: Evidence for German manufacturing enterprises," Working Paper Series in Economics, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics 251, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  2. Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Credit constraints and exports: A survey of empirical studies using firm level data," Working Paper Series in Economics, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics 287, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  3. Wagner, Joachim & Gelübcke, John P. Weche, 2013. "Credit Constraints, Foreign Ownership, and Foreign Takeovers in Germany," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies 329, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  4. Peters, Katrin & Schnitzer, Monika, 2012. "Trade liberalization and credit constraints: Why opening up may fail to promote convergence," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 8942, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Kamran Bilir & Davin Chor & Kalina Manova, 2014. "Host-Country Financial Development and Multinational Activity," NBER Working Papers 20046, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Li Junjiang & Hou Lei & Zhang Jiarui, 2011. "Capital endowment, credit constraint and FDI: Analysis based on heterogeneous firms," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 55-75, March.

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