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Managers, Workers, and Corporate Control

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Abstract

If management has high private benefits and owns a small equity stake, managers and workers are natural allies against a takeover threat. Two forces are at play. First, managers can transform employees into a "shark repellent" through long-term labor contracts and thereby reduce the firm's attractiveness to a raider. Second, employees can act as ``white squires''\ for the incumbent managers: to protect their high wages, they resist hostile takeovers, by refusing to sell their shares to the raider or by lobbying against the takeover. The model predicts that wages are inversely correlated with the incumbent's equity stake, and decline after a takeover

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 75.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2001
Date of revision: 09 Jan 2004
Publication status: Published in The Journal of Finance, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 2005, pages 841-868
Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:75

Note: Winner of the 2005 Egon Zehnder International Prize for the best paper in the ECGI Finance Working Paper series, and nominated for the 2005 Brattle Prize.
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Keywords: industrial relationships; private benefits; political economy; shareholder protection; corporate governance; employment protection; takeovers;

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References

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  1. Gary Gorton & Frank Schmid, 2000. "Class Struggle Inside the Firm: A Study of German Codetermination," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-36, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. Sendhil Mullainathan & Marianne Bertrand, 1998. "Is there Discretion in Wage Setting? A Test Using Takeover Legislation," Working papers 98-19, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  3. Gordon, Lilli A. & Pound, John, 1990. "ESOPs and corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 525-555, October.
  4. Chaplinsky, Susan & Niehaus, Greg, 1994. " The Role of ESOPs in Takeover Contests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1451-70, September.
  5. Bertrand, Marianne & Mullainathan, Sendhil, 2003. "Enjoying the Quiet Life? Corporate Governance and Managerial Preferences," Scholarly Articles 3429713, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  6. Garvey, Gerald T & Gaston, Noel, 1997. "A Theory of the Optimal Cost Barrier to Corporate Takeovers," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(3), pages 657-75, August.
  7. Franks, Julian & Mayer, Colin, 1998. "Bank control, takeovers and corporate governance in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1385-1403, October.
  8. Brian E. Becker, 1995. "Union rents as a source of takeover gains among target shareholders," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(1), pages 3-19, October.
  9. Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers, 1987. "Breach of Trust in Hostile Takeovers," NBER Working Papers 2342, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 1998. "Why Higher Takeover Premia Protect Minority Shareholders," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 172-204, February.
  11. Alan J. Auerbach, 1988. "Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number auer88-1.
  12. Sangsoo Park & Moon H. Song, 1995. "Employee Stock Ownership Plans, Firm Performance, and Monitoring by Outside Blockholders," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(4), Winter.
  13. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
  14. Betton, Sandra & Eckbo, B Espen, 2000. "Toeholds, Bid Jumps, and Expected Payoffs in Takeovers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 841-82.
  15. Rosett, Joshua G., 1990. "Do union wealth concessions explain takeover premiums? : The evidence on contract wages," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 263-282, September.
  16. Beatty, Anne, 1995. "The cash flow and informational effects of employee stock ownership plans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 211-240, June.
  17. Calvo, Guillermo A & Wellisz, Stanislaw, 1978. "Supervision, Loss of Control, and the Optimum Size of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 943-52, October.
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