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Exclusive dealing, entry, and mergers

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Abstract

We extend the literature on exclusive dealing by allowing the incumbent and the potential entrant to merge. This uncovers new effects. First, exclusive deals can be used to improve the incumbent’s bargaining position in the merger negotiation. Second, the incumbent finds it easier to elicit the buyer’s acceptance than in the case where entry can occur only by installing new capacity. Third, exclusive dealing reduces welfare because (i) it may trigger entry through merger whereas de-novo entry would be socially optimal (ii) it may deter entry altogether. Finally, we show that when exclusive deals include a commitment to future prices, they will increase welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 153.

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Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
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Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:153

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Keywords: Countervailing Power; Exclusion; Buyers’ Fragmentation;

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References

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  1. Michael D. Whinston, 2001. "Exclusivity and Tying in U.S. v. Microsoft: What We Know, and Don't Know," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 63-80, Spring.
  2. Rasmusen, Eric B & Ramseyer, J Mark & Wiley, John S, Jr, 1991. "Naked Exclusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1137-45, December.
  3. Bernheim, B.D., 1992. "Exclusive Dealing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1622, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  4. Michael D. Whinston & Ilya R. Segal, 2000. "Naked Exclusion: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 296-309, March.
  5. Motta,Massimo, 2004. "Competition Policy," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521016919, October.
  6. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1987. "Contracts as a Barrier to Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 388-401, June.
  7. Persson, Lars, 2001. "Predation and Mergers: Is Merger Law Counterproductive?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2734, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Farrell, Joseph, 2005. "Deconstructing Chicago on Exclusive Dealing," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt9wv3k43c, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  9. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521816632 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Yamey, B S, 1972. "Predatory Price Cutting: Notes and Comments," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 129-42, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zavelberg, Yvonne & Wieck, Christine & Heckelei, Thomas, 2014. "Entry deterring effects of contractual relations in the dairy processing sector," Discussion Papers 165088, University of Bonn, Institute for Food and Resource Economics.
  2. Etro, Federico, 2011. "Endogenous market structures and contract theory: Delegation, principal-agent contracts, screening, franchising and tying," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 463-479, May.
  3. Fumagalli, Chiara & Motta, Massimo & Persson, Lars, 2007. "On the Anticompetitive Effect of Exclusive Dealing when Entry by Merger is Possible," Working Paper Series 718, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  4. Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2013. "Efficiency and Foreclosure Effects of All-Units Discounts: Empirical Evidence," NBER Working Papers 19709, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Marc Blatter & Silvio Sticher, 2013. "Exclusivity Clauses: Enhancing Competition, Raising Prices," Diskussionsschriften dp1312, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  6. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2010. "Exclusive Dealing and the Market Power of Buyers," CARF F-Series CARF-F-222, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  7. Muriel Fadairo & Jianyu Yu, 2014. "Economic Rationales of Exclusive Dealing ; Empirical Evidence from the French Distribution Networks," Working Papers halshs-00945551, HAL.
  8. Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson & Joacim Tag, 2013. "Buying to Sell: Private Equity Buyouts and Industrial Restructuring," CESifo Working Paper Series 4338, CESifo Group Munich.
  9. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2011. "Exclusive Dealing Contracts by Distributors," CARF F-Series CARF-F-243, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  10. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2010. "Exclusive Dealing and the Market Power of Buyers," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-748, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  11. Schutz, Nicolas, 2013. "Competition with Exclusive Contracts in Vertically Related Markets: An Equilibrium Non-Existence Result," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 439, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  12. Hiroshi Kitamura & Noriaki Matsushima & Misato Sato, 2013. "How Does Downstream Firms' Efficiency Affect Exclusive Supply Agreements?," ISER Discussion Paper 0878, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  13. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2011. "Exclusive Dealing Contracts by Distributors," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-789, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  14. Yongmin Chen & David E. M. Sappington, 2011. "Exclusive Contracts, Innovation, and Welfare," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 194-220, May.
  15. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2009. "Exclusive Dealing and Large Distributors," CARF F-Series CARF-F-152, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  16. Ryoko Oki & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2009. "Exclusive Dealing and Large Distributors," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-626, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

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