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Firm Value and Managerial Incentives: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

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  • Michel Habib
  • Alexander Ljungqvist

Abstract

We examine the relation between firm value and managerial incentives in a sample of 1,487 U.S. firms in 1992-1997, for which the separation of ownership and control is complete. Unlike previous studies, we employ a measure of relative performance which compares a firm’s actual Tobin’s Q to the Q of a hypothetical fully-efficientfirm having the same inputs and characteristics as the original firm. We find that the Q of the average firm in our sample is around 10% lower than its Q, equivalent to a $1,340 million reduction in its potential market value. We investigate what causes firms to fail to reach their Q and find that our firms are more efficient, the higher are CEO stockholdings and optionholdings and the more sensitive are CEO options to firm risk. We also show that boards respond to inefficiency by subsequently strengthening incentives or replacing inefficient CEOs.

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Paper provided by Oxford Financial Research Centre in its series OFRC Working Papers Series with number 2000fe03.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:sbs:wpsefe:2000fe03

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Cited by:
  1. Lucian Arye Bebchuk & Jesse M. Fried, 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 71-92, Summer.
  2. Jayesh Kumar, 2004. "Share holding Pattern and Firm Performance," Finance 0409008, EconWPA.
  3. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J., 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 559-585.
  4. Ezzeddine Ben Mohamed & Baccar Ame & Abdelfatteh Bouri, 2013. "Investment Cash Flow Sensitivity and Managerial Optimism: A Literature Review via the Classification Scheme Technique," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 5(1), pages 007-026, June.
  5. Kim, Jeong-Bon & Li, Yinghua & Zhang, Liandong, 2011. "CFOs versus CEOs: Equity incentives and crashes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 713-730, September.
  6. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Measuring the performance of banks: theory, practice, evidence, and some policy implications," Working Papers 13-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  7. Bulan, Laarni & Sanyal, Paroma & Yan, Zhipeng, 2010. "A few bad apples: An analysis of CEO performance pay and firm productivity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 273-306, July.
  8. Ingolf Dittmann & Ko-Chia Yu, 2009. "How Important Are Risk-Taking Incentives in Executive Compensation?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-076/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Richard Chung & Scott Fung & Szu-Yin Hung, 2012. "Institutional Investors and Firm Efficiency of Real Estate Investment Trusts," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 171-211, June.
  10. O’Connor, Matthew & Rafferty, Matthew & Sheikh, Aamer, 2013. "Equity compensation and the sensitivity of research and development to financial market frictions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2510-2519.
  11. Gormley, Todd A. & Matsa, David A. & Milbourn, Todd, 2013. "CEO compensation and corporate risk: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 79-101.
  12. Beladi, Hamid & Quijano, Margot, 2013. "CEO incentives for risk shifting and its effect on corporate bank loan cost," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 182-188.
  13. O'Connor, Matthew L. & Rafferty, Matthew, 2010. "Incentive effects of executive compensation and the valuation of firm assets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 431-442, September.
  14. Quader, Manzur & Taylor, Karl, 2014. "Corporate Efficiency, Credit Status and Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 8285, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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