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Optimal Hedging and Scale Inavriance: A Taxonomy of Option Pricing Models

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  • Carol Alexandra

    ()
    (ICMA Centre, University of Reading)

  • Leonardo M. Nogueira

    ()
    (ICMA Centre, University of Reading)

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    Abstract

    The assumption that the probability distribution of returns is independent of the current level of the asset price is an intuitive property for option pricing models on financial assets. This ‘scale invariance’ feature is common to the Black-Scholes (1973) model, most stochastic volatility models and most jump-diffusion models. In this paper we extend the scale-invariant property to other models, including some local volatility, Lévy and mixture models, and derive a set of equivalence properties that are useful for classifying their hedging performance. Bates (2005) shows that, if calibrated exactly to the implied volatility smile, scale-invariant models have the same ‘model-free’ partial price sensitivities for vanilla options. We show that these model-free price hedge ratios are not optimal hedge ratios for many scale-invariant models. We derive optimal hedge ratios for stochastic and local volatility models that have not always been used in the literature. An empirical comparison of well-known models applied to SP 500 index options shows that optimal hedges are similar in all the smile-consistent models considered and they perform better than the Black-Scholes model on average. The partial price sensitivities of scale-invariant models provide the poorest hedges.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Henley Business School, Reading University in its series ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance with number icma-dp2005-10.

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    Length: 35 pages
    Date of creation: Jul 2005
    Date of revision: Nov 2005
    Handle: RePEc:rdg:icmadp:icma-dp2005-10

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Charles Quanwei Cao & Gurdip S. Bakshi & Zhiwu Chen, 1997. "Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm54, Yale School of Management.
    2. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    3. Merton, Robert C., 1975. "Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous," Working papers 787-75., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    4. Bakshi, Gurdip & Cao, Charles & Chen, Zhiwu, 1997. " Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2003-49, December.
    5. Schroder, Mark Douglas, 1989. " Computing the Constant Elasticity of Variance Option Pricing Formula," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 211-19, March.
    6. Peter Carr & Katrina Ellis & Vishal Gupta, 1998. "Static Hedging of Exotic Options," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(3), pages 1165-1190, 06.
    7. Naik, Vasanttilak, 1993. " Option Valuation and Hedging Strategies with Jumps in the Volatility of Asset Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1969-84, December.
    8. Mark Rubinstein., 1994. "Implied Binomial Trees," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-232, University of California at Berkeley.
    9. Charles Quanwei Cao & Gurdip S. Bakshi & Zhiwu Chen, 1997. "Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm65, Yale School of Management.
    10. Bernard Dumas & Jeff Fleming & Robert E. Whaley, 1998. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2059-2106, December.
    11. Gurdip Bakshi & Nikunj Kapadia, 2003. "Delta-Hedged Gains and the Negative Market Volatility Risk Premium," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 527-566.
    12. Rubinstein, Mark, 1994. " Implied Binomial Trees," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 771-818, July.
    13. Jiri Hoogland & Dimitri Neumann, 1999. "Scale invariance and contingent claim pricing," Finance 9907002, EconWPA.
    14. Takaki Hayashi & Per A. Mykland, 2005. "Evaluating Hedging Errors: An Asymptotic Approach," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 309-343.
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