A Mixed-Motives Model of Private Transfers with Subjectively-Assessed Recipient Need: Evidence from a Poor, Transfer-Dependent Economy
AbstractWe extend the mixed-motives model of transfer derivatives developed by Cox et al (2004) introducing subjectively-assessed recipient need in place of an absolute income threshold at which the donor’s dominant motive switches from altruism to exchange. This refinement provides a theoretically justifiable threshold amenable to empirical measurement. We test the extended model with customized survey data from Tonga and find evidence consistent with Cox et al in support of altruism for households below the threshold, but, we also find a positive, exchange-motivated relationship for those above the threshold. We conclude that either crowding-out or crowding-in of private transfers can occur when the recipient’s welfare improves, depending on the household’s pre-transfer welfare level. This also has implications for the distributional impact of private transfers and could explain why poverty reduction can be accompanied by increased income inequality.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia in its series Discussion Papers Series with number 365.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John Gibson & Susan Olivia & Scott Rozelle, 2006. "How Widespread are Non-linear Crowding Out Out Effects? The Response of Private Transfers to Income in Four Developing Countries," Working Papers in Economics, University of Waikato, Department of Economics 06/01, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
- David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2000.
"Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA,"
NBER Working Papers
7487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2001. "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 616, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Cox, Donald, 1987. "Motives for Private Income Transfers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 508-46, June.
- Krishna, Anirudh, 2004. "Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor: Who Gains, Who Loses, and Why?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 121-136, January.
- Easterlin, Richard A., 1995. "Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 35-47, June.
- Cox, Donald & Eser, Zekeriya & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1998.
"Motives for private transfers over the life cycle: An analytical framework and evidence for Peru,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 57-80, February.
- Donald Cox & Zekeriya Eser & Emmanuel Jimenez, 1996. "Motives for Private Transfers over the Life Cycle: An Analytical Framework and Evidence for Peru," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 327., Boston College Department of Economics.
- Marcel Fafchamps & Forhad Shilpi, 2006.
"Subjective Welfare, Isolation, and Relative Consumption,"
Economics Series Working Papers
GPRG-WPS-056, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Shilpi, Forhad, 2008. "Subjective welfare, isolation, and relative consumption," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 43-60, April.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Shilpi, Forhad, 2006. "Subjective Welfare, Isolation and Relative Consumption," CEPR Discussion Papers 6002, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kaufmann, Daniel & Lindauer, David L., 1986. "A model of income transfers for the urban poor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 337-350.
- Cox, Donald & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2008. "Extended Family and Kinship Networks: Economic Insights and Evolutionary Directions," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier.
- Donald Cox & Bruce E. Hansen & Emmanuel Jimenez, 1997.
"How Responsive are Private Transfers to Income? Evidence from a Laissez-Faire Economy,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
341., Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Dec 1999.
- Cox, Donald & Hansen, Bruce E. & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 2004. "How responsive are private transfers to income? Evidence from a laissez-faire economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 2193-2219, August.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Fumio Hayashi & Laurence J. Kotlikoff, 1989.
"Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data,"
NBER Working Papers
3046, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Altonji, Joseph G & Hayashi, Fumio & Kotlikoff, Laurence J, 1992. "Is the Extended Family Altruistically Linked? Direct Tests Using Micro Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1177-98, December.
- Kazianga, H., 2006.
"Motives for household private transfers in Burkina Faso,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 73-117, February.
- Harounan Kaziango, 2004. "Motives for Household Private Transfers in Burkina Faso," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 895, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- John Gibson & David McKenzie & Halahingano Rohorua, 2006. "How Cost Elastic are Remittances? Estimates from Tongan Migrants in New Zealand," Working Papers in Economics, University of Waikato, Department of Economics 06/02, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
- Eliana V. Jimenez & Richard P.C. Brown, 2008. "Assessing the poverty impacts of remittances with alternative counterfactual income estimates," Discussion Papers Series 375, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Randal Anderson).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.