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Mapping Fragmentation: Electronics and Automobiles in East Asia and Latin America

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  • Sanjaya Lall, Manuel Albaladejo and Jinkang Zhang (QEH)

Abstract

'Fragmentation', the relocation of processes or functions across countries in response to cost and other differences, has important implications for development. We discuss the drivers of fragmentation and map it for electronics and automotives in East Asia and Latin America. For technical reasons, electronics is fragmenting faster worldwide than autos. Electronics networks are more advanced, widespread and integrated in EA than LAC, and are largely responsible for EA's rapid export growth. The auto network is more advanced in LAC but is slower growing and is not integrated into a regional system. Apart from Mexico, LAC lacks an electronics network, partly accounting for the region's weak export performance. We offer insights into the following: Why do industries fragment differently? How can fragmentation be measured? Why does fragmentation in developing countries concentrate on EA and LAC? Why has fragmentation evolved differently in these two regions? Can other developing regions attract and benefit from fragmentation?

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Paper provided by Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford in its series QEH Working Papers with number qehwps115.

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Handle: RePEc:qeh:qehwps:qehwps115

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  1. Lall, Sanjaya & Albaladejo, Manuel, 2004. "China's Competitive Performance: A Threat to East Asian Manufactured Exports?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1441-1466, September.
  2. Gereffi, Gary, 1999. "International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 37-70, June.
  3. Rajah Rasiah, 1996. "Innovation And Institutions," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 79-102.
  4. Larry Westphal, 2002. "Technology Strategies For Economic Development In A Fast Changing Global Economy," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4-5), pages 275-320.
  5. repec:rus:hseeco:123689 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Sanjaya Lall, 2005. "FDI, AGOA and Manufactured Exports by a Landlocked, Least Developed African Economy: Lesotho," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(6), pages 998-1022.
  7. Françoise Lemoine & Deniz Ünal-Kesenci, 2002. "China in the International Segmentation of Production Processes," Working Papers 2002-02, CEPII research center.
  8. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
  9. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 1999. "Production sharing in East Asia : who does what for whom, and why?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2197, The World Bank.
  10. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 2003. "Major trade trends in East Asia : what are their implications for regional cooperation and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3084, The World Bank.
  11. Arndt, Sven W. & Kierzkowski, Henryk (ed.), 2001. "Fragmentation: New Production Patterns in the World Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199243310.
  12. Ernst, Dieter & Kim, Linsu, 2002. "Global production networks, knowledge diffusion, and local capability formation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 1417-1429, December.
  13. repec:idb:brikps:8551 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Best, Michael, 2001. "The New Competitive Advantage: The Renewal of American Industry," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198297451.
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Cited by:
  1. Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia, 2009. "Vertical specialization across the world: A relative measure," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 267-280, December.
  2. Kemal Türkcan, 2009. "Vertical Intra-Industry Trade: An Empirical Examination of the Austria’s Auto-Parts Industry," FIW Working Paper series 030, FIW.
  3. Jan Fagerberg & Martin Srholec, 2004. "Structural Changes in International Trade. Cause, Impact and Response," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 55(6), pages 1071-1097.
  4. Sanjaya Lall & John Weiss & Hiroshi Oikawa, 2005. "China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 163-194.
  5. Lall, Sanjaya & Weiss, John & Zhang, Jinkang, 2006. "The "sophistication" of exports: A new trade measure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 222-237, February.
  6. Martin Srholec, 2005. "High-tech exports from developing countries: A symptom of technology spurts or statistical illusion?," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20051215, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
  7. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2008. "International Fragmentation of Production in the Portuguese Economy: What do Different Measures Tell Us?," Working Papers w200811, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  8. Sanjaya Lall & John Weiss, 2004. "People's Republic of China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002," IDB Publications 46578, Inter-American Development Bank.
  9. Desbordes, Rodolphe, 2007. "The sensitivity of U.S. multinational enterprises to political and macroeconomic uncertainty: A sectoral analysis," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 732-750, December.
  10. Sanchez-Ancochea, Diego, 2006. "Development trajectories and new comparative advantages: Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic under Globalization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 996-1015, June.
  11. Robert A. Blecker & Arslan Razmi, 2009. "Export-led growth, real exchange rates and the fallacy of composition," Working Papers 2009-22, American University, Department of Economics.
  12. Razmi, Arslan, 2007. "Pursuing manufacturing-based export-led growth: Are developing countries increasingly crowding each other out?," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 460-482, December.
  13. Sanjaya Lall (QEH), . "Is African Industry Competing?," QEH Working Papers qehwps122, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  14. Amighini, Alessia A., 2012. "China and India in the international fragmentation of automobile production," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 325-341.
  15. Sanjaya Lall (QEH), John Weiss and Jinkang Zhang, . "The 'Sophistication' Of Exports: A New Measure Of Product Characteristics," QEH Working Papers qehwps123, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.

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