Human capital formation and economic development in Pakistan: an empirical analysis
AbstractThere is widely accepted concept in economic theory that human capital plays positive role in determining national income. Formation or accumulation of human capital and economic development for human welfare are the major targets of economic policy of each country. This study investigates the casual relationship between economic development and formation of human capital in Pakistan. Based on endogenous growth theory, this study empirically test the standard growth model consisting of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as a dependent variable and human capital formation, investment in physical capital and labor force as independent variables. Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to co-integration is used to check the long run equilibrium relationship between the variables included in the model. For checking the causal relationship between economic development and human capital formation, Pair-wise Granger Causality test is utilized using the time series data ranging from 1972 to 2009. The results of the co-integration show that the variables are co-integrated. They have long run stable equilibrium relationship. The results of the causality test show that there is bidirectional causal relationship between economic development and human capital formation.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 38925.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Human capital formation; physical capital; welfare; education; health; labour force; cointegration; unit root;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- O40 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-05-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-FDG-2012-05-29 (Financial Development & Growth)
- NEP-MAC-2012-05-29 (Macroeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999.
"Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press,
MIT Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116, February.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?," NBER Working Papers 6564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Silles, Mary A., 2009. "The causal effect of education on health: Evidence from the United Kingdom," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 122-128, February.
- Tewodaj Mogues & Michael Carter, 2005.
"Social capital and the reproduction of economic inequality in polarized societies,"
Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer,
Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 193-219, December.
- Mogues, Tewodaj & Carter, Michael, 2005. "Social capital and the reproduction of economic inequality in polarized societies," DSGD discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 25, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zhang, Chuanguo & Zhuang, Lihuan, 2011. "The composition of human capital and economic growth: Evidence from China using dynamic panel data analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 165-171, March.
- Lindsay, C M, 1971. "Measuring Human Capital Returns," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1195-1215, Nov.-Dec..
- Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Pervaiz, Zahid & Jan, Sajjad Ahmad & Ali, Amjad & Chaudhary, Amatul R., 2011. "Poverty, inflation and economic growth: empirical evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34290, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
- Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
- E. N. Appiah & W. W. McMahon, 2002. "The Social Outcomes of Education and Feedbacks on Growth in Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 27-68.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.