Unobserved Factors Linking Functional Decline and Depression Among the Oldest Americans
AbstractThis study considers the dependence between functional decline and depression in a nationally representative sample of older Americans from the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) covering the years from 1993 to 2002. Previous research has shown that depression is a significant predictor of functional decline and, conversely, functional limitations lead to more depressive symptoms. While this cross-dependence is an established fact in the literature, relatively few prior papers formally modeled the association between functional decline and depression. In this paper, functional decline is defined as 2 or more limitations in 5 Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 2 or more limitations in 5 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) from the baseline to the last available follow-up interview. Depression is defined as 3 or more points on the 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale over the same range of time. In the analytic sample of 5,470 oldest Americans, each of the three measures is initially estimated in the univariate probit model controlling for a rich set of available risk factors identified in the previous studies. Then it is argued that univariate probit models are incapable of capturing individual differences (for example, predisposition to both physical and emotional ill health) that may link functional decline and depression in the oldest Americans. Thus, a more advanced multivariate probit model is employed, and three discrete equations are estimated jointly. In this way, unmeasured factors specific to the individual will become part of the error terms, and statistically significant correlations in the variance matrix will indicate dependence between functional decline and depression. Estimation of multivariate probit model reveals substantial unobserved heterogeneity in the dynamics of ADLs, IADLs, and CES-D score over time. Thus, previous results based on univariate methods should be interpreted with caution.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 31949.
Date of creation: 13 Jun 2011
Date of revision:
Multivariate probit; Activities of Daily Living; Depression; Older Adults;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003.
"Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood,"
United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003
10, Stata Users Group.
- Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
- Lamb, Vicki L., 1996. "A cross-national study of quality of life factors associated with patterns of elderly disablement," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 363-377, February.
- Silvia Balia & Andrew M Jones, 2005.
"Mortality, lifestyle and socio-economic status,"
Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers
05/02, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
- Stuck, Andreas E. & Walthert, Jutta M. & Nikolaus, Thorsten & Büla, Christophe J. & Hohmann, Christoph & Beck, John C., 1999. "Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 445-469, February.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.