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Diferencias en el ingreso per cápita regional e infraestructura de transporte en México
[Differences in per capita regional income and transport infrastructure in Mexico]

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  • Torres Preciado, Víctor Hugo
  • Polanco Gaytán, Mayrén
  • Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

Abstract

El objetivo de esta investigación consiste en ofrecer una primera aproximación acerca de la relación entre la disparidad económica regional y la inversión pública en infraestructura de transporte en México. En este sentido, el estudio comparte la perspectiva agregada que predomina en el análisis propuesto por Aschauer (1989). Sin embargo, el marco analítico difiere parcialmente del propuesto por dicho autor. En particular, siguiendo la estrategia de Mankiw, Romer y Weil (1990), se extiende el modelo de Solow para incluir explícitamente la infraestructura de transporte en el análisis. Esto permitirá estimar el efecto de dicha infraestructura en el nivel de ingreso per cápita regional. Con este fin, se estima un modelo en panel de datos y se realizan pruebas para determinar la presencia de efectos fijos, esto permite abandonar el supuesto de niveles de tecnologías idénticas, y por tanto, controlar por diferencias regionales debido a efectos no observados. Los resultados sugieren que la inversión pública en infraestructura carretera y ferroviaria se ha asignado con criterios de equidad, al parecer, con la finalidad de disminuir la inequidad en la dotación de infraestructura de transporte entre estados y mejorar el nivel de vida de los estados económicamente más atrasados. Por su parte, la inversión en aeropuertos y puertos estaría siendo asignada con criterios de eficiencia, aunque debe reconocerse que en el caso de los puertos también intervienen factores geográficos. Sin embargo, el que la magnitud de los coeficientes negativos sobrepasen la magnitud de los coeficientes positivos sugiere que el criterio de equidad predomina sobre el criterio de eficiencia, de hecho, el coeficiente estimado para la inversión agregada en infraestructura de transporte en el modelo 3 parece corroborar esta situación. De manera particular, considerando que aproximadamente el 80% de la inversión en infraestructura de transporte se concentra en la red carretera y que el coeficiente estimado es comparativamente mayor que en el resto de componentes de infraestructura, resulta claro que la inversión en este tipo de infraestructura parece erigirse como uno de los principales instrumentos para aminorar la disparidad económica regional. This investigation aims to offer a first sight on the relationship between regional economic disparities and public investment in transport infrastructure in Mexico. This study shares the aggregate perspective that features the analysis by Aschauer (1989), but differs in that, following the strategy of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1990), the Solow model is extended to explicitly include transport infrastructure in the analysis and allowing estimating its effects on per capita regional income. To this end, a panel data model with fixed effects is estimated, which permit to abandon the assumption of identical technology levels and therefore controlling by regional differences due to non-observed effects. Results suggest that public investment in road and railroad infrastructures has been assigned under equity criteria, with possibly the aim of reducing the unequal distribution of transport infrastructure among states and improving standard of livings. On the other hand, investment in airports and ports seems to be assigned under efficiency criteria, while it should be recognized that investment in ports is related to geographical factors. Magnitudes of positive signs overpass that of negative signs suggesting that equity criteria may be predominant over efficiency criteria. In particular, given that 80% of transport infrastructure investment is concentrated in road infrastructure and that its related estimated coefficient is higher than the coefficients for the rest of infrastructure components, it is clear that investment in road infrastructure seems to be a key instrument to reduce regional economic disparities.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 28081.

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Date of creation: Jan 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:28081

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Keywords: economía regiona; diferencias en el ingreso per cápita; infraestructura de transporte; carreteras; vías férreas; puertos; aeorpuertos; México. regional economics; per capita income differences; transport infrastructure; roads; railroads; ports; airports; Mexico.;

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