Time Poverty, Work Status and Gender: The Case of Pakistan
AbstractTime is an important economic resource that can be spent in a variety of ways. Diverse demands on a person’s time may reach a point where the individual may be categorized as time poor. Time poverty may vary across gender, occupational groups, industries, regions, and income levels. The present study focuses on measurement of time poverty and its incidence among these categories using Time Use Survey (TUS) 2007, the first nationwide time use survey for Pakistan. The results of this study provide some important insights into the phenomenon of time poverty in Pakistan and lead to some interesting conclusions. In the entire TUS sample, the incidence of time poverty is 14 percent. Women are found to be more time poor than men whether they are employed or not. A closer look at time use statistics reveals the reason behind this occurrence. There are certain women-specific activities that they have to perform irrespective of their employment status. This additional time burden plays a key role in making them more time poor. Working women are far more time poor as compared to not working women. Thus, while accepting a job, women have to deal with a major tradeoff between time poverty and monetary poverty. People in certain professions and industries are more time poor as compared to people in other professions and industries. These professions and industries generally require extended hours from the workers, while offering low wage rates. This entails a situation of double jeopardy for the workers who tend to be monetary and time poor at the same time. The close association of time poverty with low income found in this study corroborates this conclusion. In the light of these findings, several policy areas emerge where we need to focus. First thing that needs to be done is to generate awareness about a fair distribution of responsibilities between men and women. Government can also play its part in reducing time poverty by enforce minimum wage laws and mandatory ceiling on work hours in the industries which have high concentration of time poverty. Eradication of monetary poverty can also go a long way in this respect by eliminating the need to work long hours at the lowest wage rate just to survive. Improving education also has significant potential in this regard, as high education is found to be associated with low time poverty.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its series PIDE-Working Papers with number 2012:81.
Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Time Poverty; Gender Disparities; Time Use; SNA Activities; Time Use Survey; Pakistan;
Other versions of this item:
- Najam Us Saqib & G. M. Arif, 2012. "Time Poverty, Work Status and Gender: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 23-46.
- Najam us Saqib & G M Arif, 2012. "Time Poverty, Work Status and Gender: The Case of Pakistan," Working Papers id:4841, eSocialSciences.
- NEP-ALL-2012-06-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2012-06-25 (Development)
- NEP-HME-2012-06-25 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2012-06-25 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2006:i:12:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
- David Lawson, 2007. "A Gendered Analysis of `Time Poverty` - The Importance of Infrastructure," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-078, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Hamilton, Bruce W., 1983. "The flypaper effect and other anomalies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 347-361, December.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.