The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students
AbstractWe show that the vast majority of very high-achieving students who are low-income do not apply to any selective college or university. This is despite the fact that selective institutions would often cost them less, owing to generous financial aid, than the resource-poor two-year and non-selective four-year institutions to which they actually apply. Moreover, high-achieving, low-income students who do apply to selective institutions are admitted and graduate at high rates. We demonstrate that these low-income students' application behavior differs greatly from that of their high-income counterparts who have similar achievement. The latter group generally follows the advice to apply to a few "par" colleges, a few "reach" colleges, and a couple of "safety" schools. We separate the low-income, high-achieving students into those whose application behavior is similar to that of their high-income counterparts ("achievement-typical" behavior) and those whose apply to no selective institutions ("income-typical" behavior). We show that income-typical students do not come from families or neighborhoods that are more disadvantaged than those of achievement-typical students. However, in contrast to the achievement-typical students, the income-typical students come from districts too small to support selective public high schools, are not in a critical mass of fellow high achievers, and are unlikely to encounter a teacher or schoolmate from an older cohort who attended a selective college. We demonstrate that widely-used policies–college admissions staff recruiting, college campus visits, college access programs–are likely to be ineffective with income-typical students, and we suggest policies that will be effective must depend less on geographic concentration of high achievers.
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Date of creation: Dec 2012
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- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education and Research Institutions
- I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
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- NEP-ALL-2012-12-15 (All new papers)
- NEP-EDU-2012-12-15 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2012-12-15 (Labour Economics)
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- Justine S. Hastings & Christopher A. Neilson & Seth D. Zimmerman, 2013. "Are Some Degrees Worth More than Others? Evidence from college admission cutoffs in Chile," NBER Working Papers 19241, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Corak, Miles, 2013. "Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 7520, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jeffrey V. Butler, 2013. "Inequality and Relative Ability Beliefs," EIEF Working Papers Series 1305, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Mar 2013.
- Arcidiacono, Peter & Aucejo, Esteban & Hotz, V. Joseph, 2013.
"University Differences in the Graduation of Minorities in STEM Fields: Evidence from California,"
IZA Discussion Papers
7227, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Peter Arcidiacono & Esteban M. Aucejo & V. Joseph Hotz, 2013. "University Differences in the Graduation of Minorities in STEM Fields: Evidence from California," NBER Working Papers 18799, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Arcidiacono & Esteban Aucejo & V. Joseph Hotz, 2013. "University Differences in the Graduation of Minorities in STEM Fields: Evidence from California," CEP Discussion Papers dp1223, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Cory Koedel & Peter Arcidiacono, 2012. "Race and College Success: Evidence from Missouri," Working Papers 1212, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised 15 Jul 2013.
- Eric Parsons, 2013. "The Icarus Syndrome: Why Do Some High Flyers Soar While Others Fall?," Working Papers 1308, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
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