Cognitive Disparities, Lead Plumbing, and Water Chemistry: Intelligence Test Scores and Exposure to Water-Borne Lead Among World War Two U.S. Army Enlistees
AbstractAssessing the impact of lead exposure is difficult if individuals select on the basis of their characteristics into environments with different exposure levels. We address this issue with data from when the dangers of lead exposure were still largely unknown, using new evidence on intelligence test scores for male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees linked to the households where they resided in 1930. Higher exposure to water-borne lead (proxied by urban residence and low water pH levels) was associated with lower test scores: going from pH 6 to pH 5.5, scores fell 5 points (1/4 standard deviation). A longer time exposed led to a more severe effect. The ubiquity of lead in urban water systems at this time and uncertainty regarding its impact mean these effects are unlikely to have resulted from selection into locations with different levels of exposure.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17161.
Date of creation: Jun 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as “Cogn iti ve Dis par iti e s, Le ad P lumpin g, an d Wa te r Ch e mist r y: P r ior Exposur e to W ate r - Bor ne Le ad an d In te lli ge nc e Te st Sc or e s A mon g Wor ld W ar Two Ar my En lis te e s,” Econom ics and Hu ma n Bi ol ogy , vol . 10, n o. 1 ( Jan uar y 201 2): 98- 112. Co-a uthor s: J ose ph P. Fe r r ie (Nor th we ste r n Un ive r sity ) a nd Ka r e n Rolf (U ni ve r sity of Ne br aska at Oma ha ).
Note: DAE HE
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- I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
- N3 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-07-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-NEU-2011-07-02 (Neuroeconomics)
- NEP-URE-2011-07-02 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
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