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Why Development Levels Differ: The Sources of Differential Economic Growth in a Panel of High and Low Income Countries

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  • Charles R. Hulten
  • Anders Isaksson
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    Abstract

    Average income per capita in the countries of the OECD was more than 20 times larger in 2000 than that of the poorest countries of sub-Sahara Africa and elsewhere, and many of the latter are not only falling behind the world leaders, but have even regressed in recent years. At the same time, other low-income countries have shown the capacity to make dramatic improvements in income per capita. Two general explanations have been offered to account for the observed patterns of growth. One view stresses differences in the efficiency of production are the main source of the observed gap in output per worker. A competing explanation reverses this conclusion and gives primary importance to capital formation. We examine the relative importance of these two factors as an explanation of the gap using 112 countries over the period 1970-2000. We find that differences in the efficiency of production, as measured by relative levels of total factor productivity, are the dominant factor accounting for the difference in development levels. We also find that the gap between rich and most poor nations is likely to persist under prevailing rates of saving and productivity change. To check the robustness of these conclusions, we employ different models of the growth process and different assumptions about the underlying data. Although different models of growth produce different relative contributions of capital formation and TFP, we conclude that the latter is the dominant source of gap. This conclusion must, however, be qualified by the poor quality of data for many developing countries.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 13469.

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    Date of creation: Oct 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13469

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    1. Barry P. Bosworth & Susan M. Collins, 2003. "The Empirics of Growth: An Update," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(2), pages 113-206.
    2. Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870," NBER Chapters, in: Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870, pages 1-23 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
    4. Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abra56-1, October.
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    Cited by:
    1. Dong-hyun Oh & Almas Heshmati & Hans Loof, 2009. "Technical Change and Total Factor Productivity Growth for Swedish Manufacturing and Service Industries," TEMEP Discussion Papers 200912, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Sep 2009.
    2. Gilad D. Aharonovitz, 2011. "Why Cannot Poor Countries Utilize Existing Knowledge? Expansion Of Firms And Human Capital Accumulation By Training," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 108-121, 01.
    3. Anders Isaksson, 2009. "The UNIDO World Productivity Database: An Overview," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 18, pages 38-50, Spring.
    4. Lin, Justin Yifu, 2011. "From flying Geese to leading Dragons : new opportunities and strategies for structural transformation in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5702, The World Bank.
    5. Hashmi, Aamir Rafique, 2007. "Intangible Capital, Barriers to Technology Adoption and Cross-Country Income Differences," MPRA Paper 5729, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ronia Hawash & Guenter Lang, 2010. "The Impact of Information Technology on Productivity in Developing Countries," Working Papers 19, The German University in Cairo, Faculty of Management Technology.

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