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Monetary and Fiscal Policy with Flexible Exchange Rates

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  • William H. Branson
  • Willem H. Buiter

Abstract

If price decisions are taken neither continuously nor in perfect synchronization, the process of adjustment of all prices to a new nominal level will imply temporary movements in relative prices. It might then well be that, to avoid these movements in relative prices, each price setter will want to move his own price slowly compared to others. The result will be a slow movement of all prices to their new nominal level, and substantial inertia of the price level. This paper formalizes this intuitive argument and reaches four main conclusions: (1) Even small departures from perfect synchronization can generate substantial price level inertia. (2) If price decisions are desynchronized, even anticipated movements in money will usually have an effect on economic activity. It is however possible to find paths of money deceleration which reduce inflation at no cost in output. (3) Price desynchronization has implications for relative price movements as well as for the price level. Goods early in the chain of production have more price and profit variability than goods further down the chain. (4) Price inertia, if it is due to price desynchronization, may be difficult to remove. It may well be that, given the timing decisions of others, no agent has an incentive to change his own timing decision: the time structure of price desynchronization may be stable.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 0901.

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Date of creation: Jun 1982
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Publication status: published as Branson, William H. and Willem H. Buiter. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy with Flexible Exchange Rates." Economic Interdependence and Flexible Exchange Rates, ed. J.S. Bhandari and B.H. Putnam, pp. 251-285. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1983.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0901

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References

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  1. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1980. "Exchange Rate Economics: Where Do We Stand?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 11(1, Tenth ), pages 143-206.
  2. Marina V. N. Whitman, 1975. "Global Monetarism and the Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 6(3), pages 491-556.
  3. Buiter, Willem H, 1978. "Short-run and Long-run Effects of External Disturbances under a Floating Exchange Rate," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 45(179), pages 251-72, August.
  4. Branson, William H, 1976. "The Dual Roles of the Government Budget and the Balance of Payments in the Movement from Short-Run to Long-Run Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 345-67, August.
  5. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Fischer, Stanley, 1980. "Exchange Rates and the Current Account," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 960-71, December.
  6. Bruno, Michael, 1978. "Exchange Rates, Import Costs, and Wage-Price Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(3), pages 379-403, June.
  7. Louka T. Katseli & Nancy Peregrim Marion, 1980. "Adjustment to Variations in Imported Input Prices: The Role of Economic Structure," NBER Working Papers 0501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Branson, William H. & Rotemberg, Julio J., 1980. "International adjustment with wage rigidity," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 309-332, May.
  9. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1980. "Imperfect asset substitutability and monetary policy under fixed exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 177-200, May.
  10. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ahtiala, Pekka, 2009. "When is money neutral under flexible exchange rates?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 318-326, March.
  2. Klundert, T.C.M.J. van de, 1991. "Reducing external debt in a world with imperfect asset and imperfect commodity substitution," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5146601, Tilburg University.
  3. Dai, Meixing & Sidiropoulos, Moïse, 1999. "Politiques économiques et dynamiques du taux de change et du prix des actions avec effets de “pass-through”
    [Economic policies, exchange rate dynamics and asset prices under the effects of &qu
    ," MPRA Paper 14402, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2001.
  4. Carl Chiarella, 1991. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy Under Nonlinear Exchange Rate Dynamics," Working Paper Series 6, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
  5. Mills, Terence C. & Pentecost, Eric J., 2003. "Is there a relationship between real exchange rate movements and the output cycle?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 593-603, May.
  6. Eichengreen, Barry & Wyplosz, Charles, 1986. "The Economic Consequences of the Franc Poincare," CEPR Discussion Papers 136, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Joaquín Pi Anguita, 1990. "Política macroeconómica en uniones monetarias," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 14(2), pages 213-224, May.
  8. Jorge Ramos & Hernán Rincón, . "El Balance Fisacl y el Balance en la Cuenta Corriente en Colombia: Canales de Transmisión y Causalidad," Borradores de Economia 166, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  9. Oscar Bajo Rubio, 1998. "Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Dynamic Models of the Open Economy," Documentos de Trabajo - Lan Gaiak Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra 9806, Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra.
  10. Pekka Ahtiala, 1998. "Fiscal Policy under Flexible Exchange Rates: When is Expansion Contractionary?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 17-34.
  11. Jeffrey Sachs & Charles Wyplosz, 1984. "Real Exchange Rate Effects of Fiscal Policy," NBER Working Papers 1255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Klundert, T.C.M.J. van de, 1989. "Reducing external debt in a world with imperfect asset and imperfect commodity substitution," Discussion Paper 1989-27, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  13. Jay Levin, 1989. "On the dynamic effects of monetary and fiscal policy under floating exchange rates: Simulations with an asset market model," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 125(4), pages 665-680, December.

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