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Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada

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  • Duclos, Jean-Yves

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  • Tabi, Martin

Abstract

L'utilité des courbes de Lorenz pour l'analyse de la répartition des revenus est bien connue depuis l'article influent d'Atkinson (1970). Nous indiquons dans le présent article comment l'usage combiné de ces courbes de Lorenz et des courbes de concentration des revenus, des impôts ou des transferts permet de résumer facilement et intuitivement l'impact de l'État sur la distribution des revenus. Nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement à la redistribution des revenus ainsi qu'à l'équité verticale et l'iniquité horizontale exercées par l'impôt direct et les politiques de transferts. En appliquant des poids "éthiques" à la distance entre les courbes de Lorenz et de concentration, l'on obtient des indices synthétiques d'inégalité, de redistribution et d'équité qui peuvent être facilement décomposés en contributions individuelles des différents types d'impôts et de transferts. Ces indices représentent une généralisation et une extension de l'indice d'inégalité bien connu de Gini. Cette approche est illustrée à l'aide de la distribution et de la redistribution des revenus au Canada au cours de la dernière décennie. On confirme le résultat bien connu que l'inégalité des revenus bruts s'est accrue de 1981 à 1990 alors qu'elle a chuté pour le revenu net. La redistribution opérée par le système fiscal s'est considérablement accrue au cours de cette décennie, au prix entre autres choses d'une plus grande iniquité horizontale. Le groupe de transferts reliés à la retraite et à la vieillesse est celui qui exerce de loin le plus d'impact sur la redistribution des revenus. L'impact redistributif de l'impôt direct est quant à lui très sensible au paramètre de subjectivité éthique utilisé.

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Paper provided by Université Laval - Département d'économique in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 9821.

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Date of creation: 1998
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Handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:9821

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  1. Plotnick, Robert, 1981. "A Measure of Horizontal Inequity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(2), pages 283-88, May.
  2. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
  3. Jakobsson, Ulf, 1976. "On the measurement of the degree of progression," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1-2), pages 161-168.
  4. DAVIDSON, Russell & DUCLOS, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Statistical Inference for the Measurement of the Incidences of Taxes and Transfers," Cahiers de recherche 9521, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  5. Garry F. Barrett & Krishna Pendakur, 1995. "The Asymptotic Distribution of the Generalized Gini Indices of Inequality," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4b), pages 1042-55, November.
  6. Ruggeri, G C & Van Wart, D & Howard, R, 1994. "The Redistributional Impact of Government Spending in Canada," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 49(2), pages 212-43.
  7. Aronson, J Richard & Johnson, Paul & Lambert, Peter J, 1994. "Redistributive Effects and Unequal Income Tax Treatment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 262-70, March.
  8. Creedy, John, 1996. "Comparing Tax and Transfer Systems: Poverty, Inequality and Target Efficiency," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S163-74, Suppl..
  9. Duclos, J.Y., 1995. "Relative Performance, Relative Deprivation and Generalised Gini Indices of Inequality and Horizontal Inequity," Papers 9514, Laval - Recherche en Politique Economique.
  10. Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1980. "A single-parameter generalization of the Gini indices of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 67-86, February.
  11. Blackorby, Charles & Donaldson, David, 1978. "Measures of relative equality and their meaning in terms of social welfare," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 59-80, June.
  12. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
  13. Suits, Daniel B, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 747-52, September.
  14. Dasgupta, Partha & Sen, Amartya & Starrett, David, 1973. "Notes on the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 180-187, April.
  15. Feldstein, Martin, 1976. "On the theory of tax reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 77-104.
  16. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1997. "The asymptotic distribution of linear indices of inequality, progressivity and redistribution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 51-57, January.
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