The World Needs Further Monetary Ease, Not an Early Exit
AbstractGovernments and central banks around the world eased macroeconomic policies aggressively in response to the 2008 financial crisis, arguably forestalling a second Great Depression. More recently, however, policymakers have been talking about when to withdraw the stimulus. This focus on exit is misguided. Current forecasts show an extended period of economic stagnation in the developed world. We need additional stimulus now, argues Joseph Gagnon. In particular, central banks in the main developed economies should push long-term interest rates 75 basis points below the levels they would otherwise be by purchasing a combined $6 trillion in long-term public and private debt securities. Relative to current forecasts, this policy action is expected to boost GDP 3 percent or more over the next eight quarters and to reduce unemployment rates by between 1 and 3 percent. Without additional stimulus, unemployment rates are likely to remain above equilibrium levels for many years at great cost to the world economy in terms of lost income and personal hardship. Moreover, with inflation rates already below desired levels, excess unemployment threatens to cause a fall in prices that would further damp recovery and retard the necessary process of deleveraging. In light of high and rising levels of public debt, additional monetary stimulus is preferable to additional fiscal stimulus. Indeed, monetary stimulus reduces the ratio of public debt to GDP by reducing interest expenses, increasing GDP, expanding tax revenues, and enabling an earlier start to fiscal consolidation.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Peterson Institute for International Economics in its series Policy Briefs with number PB09-22.
Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boivin, Jean & Kiley, Michael T. & Mishkin, Frederic S., 2010.
"How Has the Monetary Transmission Mechanism Evolved Over Time?,"
Handbook of Monetary Economics,
in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 8, pages 369-422
- Jean Boivin & Michael T. Kiley & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2010. "How has the monetary transmission mechanism evolved over time?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-26, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Jean Boivin & Michael T. Kiley & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2010. "How Has the Monetary Transmission Mechanism Evolved Over Time?," NBER Working Papers 15879, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009.
"The Aftermath of Financial Crises,"
NBER Working Papers
14656, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Agell, J. & Persson, M., 1989. "Does Debt Management Matter?," Papers 442, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
- Glenn D. Rudebusch, 2000.
"Assessing nominal income rules for monetary policy with model and data uncertainty,"
Working Paper Series
2000-03, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Glenn D. Rudebusch, 2002. "Assessing Nominal Income Rules for Monetary Policy with Model and Data Uncertainty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(479), pages 402-432, April.
- Rudebusch, Glenn D., 2000. "Assessing nominal income rules for monetary policy with model and data uncertainty," Working Paper Series 0014, European Central Bank.
- Glenn Rudebusch, 2000. "Assessing Nominal Income Rules for Monetary Policy with Model and Data Uncertainty," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0065, Econometric Society.
- Glenn D. Rudebusch, 2009. "The Fed's monetary policy response to the current crisis," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue May 22.
- David Reifschneider & Robert Tetlow & John Williams, 1999. "Aggregate disturbances, monetary policy, and the macroeconomy: the FRB/US perspective," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jan, pages 1-19.
- Kuttner, Kenneth N. & Posen, Adam S., 2004.
"The difficulty of discerning what's too tight: Taylor rules and Japanese monetary policy,"
The North American Journal of Economics and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 53-74, March.
- Kenneth N. Kuttner & Adam S. Posen, 2003. "The Difficulty of Discerning What's Too Tight: Taylor Rules and Japanese Monetary Policy," Working Paper Series WP03-10, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Robert N McCauley & Kazuo Ueda, 2009. "Government debt management at low interest rates," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, June.
- Philip Turner, 2013. "Benign neglect of the long-term interest rate," BIS Working Papers 403, Bank for International Settlements.
- Tsangarides, Charalambos G., 2012. "Crisis and recovery: Role of the exchange rate regime in emerging market economies," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 470-488.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peterson Institute webmaster).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.