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Dynamics of State Price Densities

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  • Wolfgang Härdle
  • Zdenek Hlavka

Abstract

State price densities (SPD) are an important element in applied quantitative finance. In a Black-Scholes model they are lognormal distributions with constant volatility parameter. In practice volatility changes and the distribution deviates from log-normality. We estimate SPDs using EUREX option data on the DAX index via a nonparametric estimator of the second derivative of the (European) call price function. The estimator is constrained so as to satisfy no-arbitrage constraints and it corrects for intraday covariance structure. Given a low dimensional representation of this SPD we study its dynamic for the years 1995–2003. We calculate a prediction corridor for the DAX for a 45 day forecast. The proposed algorithm is simple, it allows calculation of future volatility and can be applied to hedging exotic options.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany in its series SFB 649 Discussion Papers with number SFB649DP2005-021.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hum:wpaper:sfb649dp2005-021

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Keywords: option pricing; state price density estimation; nonlinear least squares; confidence intervals;

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References

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  1. Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 2000. "Nonparametric Risk Management and Implied Risk Aversion," NBER Working Papers 6130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Fengler, Matthias R. & Härdle, Wolfgang & Mammen, Enno, 2003. "Implied volatility string dynamics," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2003,54, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  3. Harrison, J. Michael & Pliska, Stanley R., 1981. "Martingales and stochastic integrals in the theory of continuous trading," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 215-260, August.
  4. Matthias Fengler, 2009. "Arbitrage-free smoothing of the implied volatility surface," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 417-428.
  5. repec:wop:humbsf:2002-40 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Bondarenko, Oleg, 2003. "Estimation of risk-neutral densities using positive convolution approximation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 85-112.
  7. Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 1995. "Nonparametric Estimation of State-Price Densities Implicit in Financial Asset Prices," NBER Working Papers 5351, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Diebold, Francis X & Gunther, Todd A & Tay, Anthony S, 1998. "Evaluating Density Forecasts with Applications to Financial Risk Management," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 863-83, November.
  9. Yatchew, Adonis & Hardle, Wolfgang, 2006. "Nonparametric state price density estimation using constrained least squares and the bootstrap," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(2), pages 579-599, August.
  10. Jackwerth, Jens Carsten, 1999. "Option Implied Risk-Neutral Distributions and Implied Binomial Trees: A Literature Review," MPRA Paper 11634, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Ait-Sahalia, Yacine & Duarte, Jefferson, 2003. "Nonparametric option pricing under shape restrictions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 9-47.
  12. Hans Buehler, 2006. "Expensive martingales," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 207-218.
  13. Ait-Sahalia, Yacine & Wang, Yubo & Yared, Francis, 2001. "Do option markets correctly price the probabilities of movement of the underlying asset?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 67-110, May.
  14. Huynh, Kim & Kervella, Pierre & Zheng, Jun, 2002. "Estimating state-price densities with nonparametric regression," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2002,40, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  15. Stoll, Hans R, 1969. "The Relationship between Put and Call Option Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 24(5), pages 801-24, December.
  16. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-51, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Matthias R. Fengler, 2005. "Arbitrage-Free Smoothing of the Implied Volatility Surface," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2005-019, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  2. Hans Buehler, 2006. "Expensive martingales," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 207-218.
  3. Fengler, Matthias & Hin, Lin-Yee, 2011. "Semi-nonparametric estimation of the call price surface under strike and time-to-expiry no-arbitrage constraints," Economics Working Paper Series 1136, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, revised May 2013.
  4. Hlavka, Zdenek, 2006. "Fast algorithm for nonparametric arbitrage-free SPD estimation," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 2339-2349, December.
  5. Zdenek Hlavka & Michal Pesta, 2006. "Constrained General Regression in Pseudo-Sobolev Spaces with Application to Option Pricing," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2006-069, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  6. Cees Diks & Valentyn Panchenko & Dick van Dijk, 2011. "Likelihood-based scoring rules for comparing density forecasts in tails," Post-Print peer-00834423, HAL.

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