Happiness in the Dual Society of Urban China: Hukou Identity, Horizontal Inequality and Heterogeneous
AbstractThis paper studies the impact of income inequality on the subjective well-being of different social groups in urban China. We classify urban social groups according to their hukou status: rural migrants, gbornh urban residents, and gacquiredh urban residents who once changed their hukou identity from rural to urban. We focus on how the horizontal inequality-income disparity between migrants and urban residents-affects individual happiness. The main results are as follows. First, migrants suffer from unhappiness when the horizontal inequality increases, but urban residents show a much smaller aversion to the horizontal inequality. Second, migrants will not be happier if their relative incomes within their migrant group increase, while urban residents do become happier when their incomes increase within their groupfs income distribution. Third, gacquiredh urban residents have traits of both migrants and gbornh urban residents. They have an aversion to the horizontal inequality like migrants, and they also favor higher relative income among urban residents. Fourth, gbornh urban residents have lower happiness scores when they are old. People who are Communist Party members strongly dislike the horizontal inequality. Our findings suggest that migrants, gacquiredh urban residents, elderly people and Party members from gbornh urban residents are the potential proponents of social integration policies in urban China.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number gd08-020.
Date of creation: Jan 2009
Date of revision:
Horizontal inequality; Happiness; Hukou identity; Migration; Social integration;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-01-24 (All new papers)
- NEP-CNA-2009-01-24 (China)
- NEP-DEV-2009-01-24 (Development)
- NEP-HAP-2009-01-24 (Economics of Happiness)
- NEP-LAB-2009-01-24 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-MIG-2009-01-24 (Economics of Human Migration)
- NEP-SOC-2009-01-24 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
- NEP-TRA-2009-01-24 (Transition Economics)
- NEP-URE-2009-01-24 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
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