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Entrepreneurship: what are the typical capabilities to create competitive resources? A discussion from case studies

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  • Alain Asquin

    (Euristik - Equipe de Recherche en management stratégique - Centre de recherche Magellan de l'IAE - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III)

  • Emmanuelle Reynaud

    (Euristik - Equipe de Recherche en management stratégique - Centre de recherche Magellan de l'IAE - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III)

  • Marion Polgé

    (Euristik - Equipe de Recherche en management stratégique - Centre de recherche Magellan de l'IAE - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III)

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    Abstract

    It appear that a golden opportunity was missed at the beginning of the 1990's. Several people began to study businesses from the point of view of resources, but very few took the same approach to entrepreneurship (Naman & Slevin, 1993). We believe the reason for this lies in the difficulties to identify the source of and the transformation processes employed for these resources. Yet, the question of the creation of resources is centred around entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur can be defined as someone who wishes to start-up a business primarily using resources he believes he controls. He is the actor who finally enacts his dreams after long consideration and chooses a trajectory that partly determines the nature of his corporate purpose. Both of these are characteristics of the “resource-based” approach. Lastly, an entrepreneur is someone who lives in hope of finding a sustainable place on his target market. To do this, he must differentiate, even if his resources are initially relatively standardised. The question of strategic differentiation based on the exploitation of resources with similar sources, is at the centre of the “resource-based” approach (Peteraf 1993). This takes us back to the assumptions of Edith Penrose (1959). The combination and specific exploitation of resources renders such resources specific and determines their value. In sum, by looking at entrepreneurship from the point of view of resources, we underline that the entrepreneur produces resources, the very act of which modifies his competencies and capabilities. The success or failure of a business creation is partly dictated by what has gone before, which influences the present and future. Therefore, history affects the ability of the entrepreneur to maintain a distinctive spiral comprising three essential characteristics: resources, competencies and organisational capabilities.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number hal-00379862.

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    Date of creation: 2001
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    Publication status: Published - Presented, 2nd McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship: Researching New Frontiers - 2000, 2001, Canada
    Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-00379862

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://hal-univ-lyon3.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00379862/en/
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    1. David Kreps & Robert Wilson, 1999. "Reputation and Imperfect Information," Levine's Working Paper Archive 238, David K. Levine.
    2. Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
    3. Maijoor, S.J. & Witteloostuijn, A. van, 1996. "An empirical test of the resource based theory: strategic regulation in the Dutch audit industry," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5373480, Tilburg University.
    4. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1982. "Predation, reputation, and entry deterrence," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 280-312, August.
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    6. Aoki, Masahiko, 1990. "Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 28(1), pages 1-27, March.
    7. Jay B. Barney, 1986. "Strategic Factor Markets: Expectations, Luck, and Business Strategy," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(10), pages 1231-1241, October.
    8. Alfred D. Chandler, 1992. "Organizational Capabilities and the Economic History of the Industrial Enterprise," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 79-100, Summer.
    9. Wernerfelt, Birger, 1984. "Consumers with differing reaction speeds, scale advantages and industry structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 257-270, March.
    10. Herriott, Scott R & Levinthal, Daniel & March, James G, 1985. "Learning from Experience in Organizations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 298-302, May.
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