Do Multinationals Really Prefer to Enter Culturally-Distant Countries Through Greenfields Rather than Through Acquisitions? The Role of Parent Experience and Subsidiary Autonomy
AbstractPrior research has argued that multinational enterprises (MNEs) prefer to enter culturally-distant countries through greenfields rather than through acquisitions, since acquisitions in such countries are costlier to manage. This argument contains two hidden assumptions: (1) the additional costs of acquisitions in culturally-distant countries are the same for all MNEs, and (2) such acquisitions have no benefits overtheir greenfield counterparts. In this paper we relax these two assumptions by arguing that an MNE’s preference for greenfields in culturally-distant countries depends on its international and host-country experience, and on the level of autonomy it plans to grant the focal subsidiary. Analyzing 171 whollyowned greenfield investments and full acquisitions made by Dutch MNEs in 35 countries, we find that these MNEs prefer to enter culturally-distant countries through greenfields, but that this preference is lower when they have little international experience, or plan to grant the focal subsidiary considerable autonomy in marketing.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam in its series ERIM Report Series Research in Management with number ERS-2007-060-ORG.
Date of creation: 11 Sep 2007
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: RSM Erasmus University & Erasmus School of Economics, PoBox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam
Phone: 31-10-408 1182
Fax: 31-10-408 9020
Web page: http://www.erim.eur.nl/
More information through EDIRC
Greenfield; acquisition; cultural distance; host-country experience; international experience; subsidiary autonomy;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D92 - Microeconomics - - Intertemporal Choice - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting
- R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anne-Wil Harzing, 2000. "An Empirical Analysis and Extension of the Bartlett and Ghoshal Typology of Multinational Companies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(1), pages 101-120, March.
- Yaakov Weber & Oded Shenkar & Adi Raveh, 1996. "National and Corporate Cultural Fit in Mergers/Acquisitions: An Exploratory Study," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(8), pages 1215-1227, August.
- Shimizu, Katsuhiko & Hitt, Michael A. & Vaidyanath, Deepa & Pisano, Vincenzo, 2004. "Theoretical foundations of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A review of current research and recommendations for the future," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 307-353.
- Larimo, Jorma, 2003. "Form of investment by Nordic firms in world markets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 56(10), pages 791-803, October.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1981. "Qualitative Response Models: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 1483-1536, December.
- W Chan Kim & Peter Hwang, 1992. "Global Strategy and Multinationals' Entry Mode Choice," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(1), pages 29-53, March.
- Piero Morosini & Scott Shane & Harbir Singh, 1998. "National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 137-158, March.
- Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 1992. "A Note on the Transnational Solution and the Transaction Cost Theory of Multinational Strategic Management," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(4), pages 761-771, December.
- Zejan, Mario C, 1990. "New Ventures of Acquisitions. The Choice of Swedish Multinational Enterprises," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 349-55, March.
- Andersson, Thomas & Svensson, Roger, 1994. " Entry Modes for Direct Investment Determined by the Composition of Firm-Specific Skills," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(4), pages 551-60.
- Brent D Wilson, 1980. "The Propensity of Multinational Companies to Expand Through Acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 59-64, March.
- Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
- Hennart, J.-F. & Park, Y.R., 1993.
"Greenfield vs. Acquisition : the strategy of Japanes investors in the United states,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-174430, Tilburg University.
- Jean-François Hennart & Young-Ryeol Park, 1993. "Greenfield vs. Acquisition: The Strategy of Japanese Investors in the United States," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(9), pages 1054-1070, September.
- Henisz, Witold J, 2000. "The Institutional Environment for Multinational Investment," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 334-64, October.
- Prasad Padmanabhan & Kang Rae Cho, 1999. "Decision Specific Experience in Foreign Ownership and Establishment Strategies: Evidence from Japanese Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(1), pages 25-41, March.
- Oded Shenkar, 2001. "Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(3), pages 519-535, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (RePub).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.