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Liquidity cycles and make/take fees in electronic markets

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Author Info

  • Foucault, Thierry

    ()

  • Kadan, Ohad

    ()

  • Kandel, Eugene

    ()

Abstract

In this paper, the authors develop a dynamic model of trading with two specialized sides: traders posting quotes (“market makers”) and traders hitting quotes (“market takers”). Traders monitor the market to seize profit opportunities, generating high frequency make/take liquidity cycles. Monitoring decisions by market-makers and market-takers are self-reinforcing, generating multiple equilibria with differing liquidity levels and duration clustering. The trading rate is typically maximized when makers and takers are charged different fees or even paid rebates, as observed in reality. The model yields several empirical implications regarding the determinants of make/take fees, the trading rate, the bid-ask spread, and the effect of algorithmic trading on these variables. Finally, algorithmic trading can improve welfare because it increases the rate at which gains from trade are realized.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by HEC Paris in its series Les Cahiers de Recherche with number 920.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ebg:heccah:0920

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Postal: HEC Paris, 78351 Jouy-en-Josas cedex, France
Web page: http://www.hec.fr/
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Related research

Keywords: liquidity; monitoring; make/take fees; duration clustering; algorithmic trading; two-sided markets;

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References

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  1. James Dow, 2004. "Is Liquidity Self-Fulfilling?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 895-908, October.
  2. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2003. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Discussion Paper Series dp321, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
  3. Thierry Foucault & Albert J. Menkveld, 2008. "Competition for Order Flow and Smart Order Routing Systems," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(1), pages 119-158, 02.
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  17. Sandas, Patrik, 2001. "Adverse Selection and Competitive Market Making: Empirical Evidence from a Limit Order Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 705-34.
  18. Angel, James J, 1997. " Tick Size, Share Prices, and Stock Splits," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 655-81, June.
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  20. Sugato Chakravarty & Robert A. Wood & Robert A. Van Ness, 2004. "Decimals And Liquidity: A Study Of The Nyse," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 27(1), pages 75-94.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Degryse, H.A. & Achter, M. van & Wuyts, G., 2012. "Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity," Discussion Paper 2012-001, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
  2. Albert J. Menkveld, 2011. "High Frequency Trading and the New-Market Makers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-076/2/DSF21, Tinbergen Institute, revised 15 Aug 2011.
  3. Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Elvira Sojli & Wing Wah Tham, 2013. "Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-154/IV/DSF63, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Rakkestad, Ketil & Skjeltorp, Johannes & Ødegaard, Bernt Arne, 2012. "The liquidity of the Secondary Market for Debt Securities in Norway," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2012/12, University of Stavanger.
  5. de Jong, Frank & Degryse, Hans & van Kervel, Vincent, 2011. "The impact of dark trading and visible fragmentation on market quality," CEPR Discussion Papers 8630, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Estelle Cantillon & Pai-Ling Yin, 2011. "Competition between Exchanges: A research Agenda," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/99386, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  7. Degryse, H.A. & Jong, F.C.J.M. de & Kervel, V.L. van, 2011. "The Impact of Dark and Visible Fragmentation on Market Quality (Replaces CentER Discussion Paper 2011-051)," Discussion Paper 2011-069, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Yacine Aït-Sahalia & Mehmet Saglam, 2013. "High Frequency Traders: Taking Advantage of Speed," NBER Working Papers 19531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Jean-Edouard Colliard & Thierry Foucault, 2012. "Trading Fees and Efficiency in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(11), pages 3389-3421.
  10. Cecilia Caglio & Stewart Mayhew, 2012. "Equity trading and the allocation of market data revenue," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-65, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Scholtus, Martin & van Dijk, Dick & Frijns, Bart, 2014. "Speed, algorithmic trading, and market quality around macroeconomic news announcements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 89-105.

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