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Liquidity Supply and Demand in Limit Order Markets

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  • Hollifield, Burton
  • Miller, Robert A.
  • Sandås, Patrik
  • Slive, Joshua

Abstract

We model a trader’s decision to supply liquidity by submitting limit orders or demand liquidity by submitting market orders in a limit order market. The best quotes and the execution probabilities and picking off risks of limit orders determine the price of immediacy. The price of immediacy and the trader’s willingness to pay for immediacy determine the trader’s optimal order submission, with the trader’s willingness to pay for immediacy depending on the trader’s valuation for the stock. We estimate the execution probabilities and the picking off risks using a sample from the Vancouver Stock Exchange to compute the price of immediacy. The price of immediacy changes with market conditions — a trader’s optimal order submission changes with market conditions. We combine the price of immediacy with the actual order submissions to estimate the unobserved arrival rates of traders and the distribution of the traders’ valuations. High realized stock volatility increases the arrival rate of traders and increases the number of value traders arriving — liquidity supply is more competitive after periods of high volatility. An increase in the spread decreases the arrival rate of traders and decreases the number of value traders arriving — liquidity supply is less competitive when the spread widens.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 3676.

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Date of creation: Dec 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3676

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Keywords: discrete choice; high frequency data; limit orders; liquidity; market orders;

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References

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  1. Hollifield, Burton & Miller, Robert & Sandås, Patrik, 2001. "Empirical Analysis of Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 2843, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Chung, Kee H. & Van Ness, Bonnie F. & Van Ness, Robert A., 1999. "Limit orders and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 255-287, August.
  3. Biais, Bruno & Martimort, David & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1998. "Competing Mechanisms in a Commun Value Environment," IDEI Working Papers 75, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  4. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2003. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Discussion Paper Series dp321, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
  5. Easley, David & Kiefer, Nicholas M & O'Hara, Maureen, 1997. "One Day in the Life of a Very Common Stock," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 805-35.
  6. Foucault, Thierry, 1999. "Order flow composition and trading costs in a dynamic limit order market1," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 99-134, May.
  7. Hee-Joon Ahn, 2001. "Limit Orders, Depth, and Volatility: Evidence from the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 767-788, 04.
  8. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
  9. Seppi, Duane J, 1997. "Liquidity Provision with Limit Orders and a Strategic Specialist," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(1), pages 103-50.
  10. Parlour, Christine A, 1998. "Price Dynamics in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 789-816.
  11. Joel Hasbrouck, 1999. "Trading Fast and Slow: Security Market Events in Real Time," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-012, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  12. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert A, 1996. " Limit Order Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1835-61, December.
  13. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1994. " Is the Electronic Open Limit Order Book Inevitable?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1127-61, September.
  14. Sandas, Patrik, 2001. "Adverse Selection and Competitive Market Making: Empirical Evidence from a Limit Order Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 705-34.
  15. David Easley & Robert F. Engle & Maureen O'Hara & Liuren Wu, 2002. "Time-Varying Arrival Rates of Informed and Uninformed Trades," Finance 0207017, EconWPA.
  16. Al-Suhaibani, Mohammad & Kryzanowski, Lawrence, 2000. "An exploratory analysis of the order book, and order flow and execution on the Saudi stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(8), pages 1323-1357, August.
  17. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
  18. Griffiths, Mark D. & Smith, Brian F. & Turnbull, D. Alasdair S. & White, Robert W., 2000. "The costs and determinants of order aggressiveness," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 65-88, April.
  19. Bruno Biais & Christophe Bisiere & Chester Spatt, 2002. "Imperfect Competition in Financial Markets: ISLAND vs. NASDAQ," GSIA Working Papers 2003-E41, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jeremy Large, 2004. "Cancellation and Uncertainty Aversion on Limit Order Books," Economics Papers 2004-W05, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  2. Foucault, Thierry & Kadan, Ohad & Kandel, Eugene, 2001. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 2889, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Anthony D. Hall & Nikolaus Hautsch, 2004. "A Continuous-Time Measurement of the Buy-Sell Pressure in a Limit Order Book Market," Discussion Papers 04-07, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  4. Hall, Anthony D. & Hautsch, Nikolaus, 2007. "Modelling the buy and sell intensity in a limit order book market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 249-286, August.
  5. Carlson, John A. & Lo, Melody, 2006. "One minute in the life of the DM/US$: Public news in an electronic market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1090-1102, November.
  6. John A Carlson & Christian M. Dahl & Carol L. Osler, 2008. "Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence," CREATES Research Papers 2008-01, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  7. Anthony D. Hall & Nikolaus Hautsch, 2004. "Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics," FRU Working Papers 2005/04, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Finance Research Unit.
  8. Carol L. Osler, 2006. "Macro lessons from microstructure," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 55-80.
  9. Ingrid Lo & Stephen G. Sapp, 2005. "Order Submission: The Choice between Limit and Market Orders," Working Papers 05-42, Bank of Canada.

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