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Monopolistic Competition, Efficiency Wages and Perverse Effects of Demand Shock

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  • Jim Malley
  • Hassan Molana

Abstract

In this paper we construct a stylised general equilibrium macromodel to show that demand led expansions may have unexpected effects when market imperfections lead to changes in labour productivity. We find some empirical support, from a number of European countries, for the main predictions of this model that unemployment and output are positively related when unemployment is low and inversely related when unemployment is high. An important policy insight that emerges from this study is that an exogenous stimulation of aggregate demand can only raise output and reduce unemployment provided the economy is operating relatively efficiently. However, when an economy is trapped in an inefficient equilibrium, positive demand shocks can lead, perversely, to an increase in unemployment.

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Paper provided by Economic Studies, University of Dundee in its series Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics with number 122.

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Date of creation: Mar 2001
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Handle: RePEc:dun:dpaper:122

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  1. Hart, Oliver, 1982. "A Model of Imperfect Competition with Keynesian Features," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 109-38, February.
  2. Mankiw, N. Gregory, 1988. "Imperfect competition and the Keynesian cross," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 7-13.
  3. Hoon, Hian Teck & Phelps, Edmund S, 1992. "Macroeconomic Shocks in a Dynamized Model of the Natural Rate of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 889-900, September.
  4. Blanchard, Olivier, 1998. "Revisiting European Unemployment : Unemployment, Capital Accumulation and Factor Prices," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number GL28, September.
  5. Moutos, Thomas, 1991. "Turnover costs, unemployment and macroeconomic policies," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-16, April.
  6. Jim Malley & Thomas Moutos, . "Capital Accumulation and Unemployment: A Tale of Two 'Continents'," Working Papers 9820, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  7. Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1990. "A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction," DELTA Working Papers 90-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  8. Dixon, Huw & Lawler, Phillip, 1996. " Imperfect Competition and the Fiscal Multiplier," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(2), pages 219-31, June.
  9. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Scholarly Articles 12490578, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  10. Startz, Richard, 1989. "Monopolistic Competition as a Foundation for Keynesian Macroeconomic Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 737-52, November.
  11. Caballero, R-J & Hammour, M-L, 1996. "The Macroeconomics of Specificity," Working papers 96-25, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  12. Disney, Richard F & Haskel, Jonathan & Heden, Ylva, 2000. "Restructuring And Productivity Growth In UK Manufacturing," CEPR Discussion Papers 2463, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  14. Fender, John & Yip, Chong K., 1993. "Monetary policies in an intertemporal macroeconomic model with imperfect competition," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 439-453.
  15. Hassan Molana & Thomas Moutos, 1991. "A Note on Taxation, Imperfect Competition and the Balanced Budget Multiplier," Working Papers Series 91/4, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  16. Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1995. "A positive theory of social security," Economics Working Papers 108, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  17. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 1987. "Monopolistic Competition and the Effects of Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 647-66, September.
  18. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1991. "Growth and Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 577, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Heijdra, Ben J & Ligthart, Jenny E & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1998. "Fiscal Policy, Distortionary Taxation, and Direct Crowding Out under Monopolistic Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(1), pages 79-88, January.
  20. Danthine, Jean-Pierre & Donaldson, John B., 1990. "Efficiency wages and the business cycle puzzle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1275-1301, November.
  21. Reinhorn, Leslie J., 1998. "Imperfect competition, the Keynesian cross, and optimal fiscal policy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 331-337, March.
  22. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1992. "Capital markets and economic fluctuations in capitalist economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 269-306, April.
  23. Heijdra, Ben J & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1996. "Keynesian Multipliers and the Cost of Public Funds under Monopolistic Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1284-96, September.
  24. Dixon,Huw David & Rankin,Neil, 1995. "The New Macroeconomics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521479479.
  25. Dixon, Huw, 1990. "Imperfect Competition, Unemployment Benefit and the Non-neutrality of Money: An Example," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 402-13, April.
  26. Chatrerji, Monojit & Sparks, Roger, 1991. "Real wages, productivity, and the cycle: An efficiency wage model," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 495-510.
  27. Dixon, Huw, 1987. "A Simple Model of Imperfect Competition with Walrasian Features," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 134-60, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Jim Malley & Hassan Molana, 2007. "The Relationship between Output and Unemployment with Efficiency Wages," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8, pages 561-577, November.

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