Competing for Customers in a Social Network (R)
AbstractThere are many situations in which a customer’s proclivity to buy the product of any firm depends not only on the classical attributes of the product such as its price and quality, but also on who else is buying the same product. Under quite general circumstances, it turns out that customers’ influence on each other dynamically converges to a steady state. Thus we can model these situations as games in which firms compete for customers located in a "social network." A canonical example is provided by competition for advertisement on the web. Nash Equilibrium (NE) in pure strategies exist in general. In the quasi-linear version of the model, NE turn out to be unique and can be precisely characterized. If there are no a priori biases between customers and firms, then there is a cut-off level above which high cost firms are blockaded at an NE, while the rest compete uniformly throughout the network. Otherwise there is a tendency towards regionalization, with firms dominating disjoint territories. We also explore the relation between the connectivity of a customer and the money firms spend on him. This relation becomes particularly transparent when externalities are dominant: NE can be characterized in terms of the invariant measures on the recurrent classes of the Markov chain underlying the social network. Finally we consider convex (instead of linear) cost functions for the firms. Here NE need not be unique as we show via an example. But uniqueness is restored if there is enough competition between firms or if their valations of clients are anonymous.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1862.
Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: May 2012
Date of revision:
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Postal: Cowles Foundation, Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C7 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
- D2 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations
- D4 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure and Pricing
- L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-05-15 (All new papers)
- NEP-COM-2012-05-15 (Industrial Competition)
- NEP-GTH-2012-05-15 (Game Theory)
- NEP-NET-2012-05-15 (Network Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shy,Oz, 2001.
"The Economics of Network Industries,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521805001.
- Pradeep Dubey & Rahul Garg & Bernard De Meyer, 2006.
"Competing for Customers in a Social Network,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
06-01, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
- Pradeep Dubey & Rahul Garg & Bernard De Meyer, 2006. "Competing for Customers in a Social Network," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1591, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Pradeep Dubey & Rahul Garg & Bernard De Meyer, 2006. "Competing for Customers in a Social Network," Levine's Bibliography 321307000000000685, UCLA Department of Economics.
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