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Boosting the employment rate of older men and women

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  • Vincent VANDENBERGHE

    ()
    (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))

Abstract

European countries need to expand employment among older individuals. Many papers have examined this issue from different angles. However, very few seem to have considered its gender dimension properly, despite evidence that lifting the overall senior employment rate requires significantly raising that of women older than 50. The key issue examined by this paper is whether employers are willing to employ more older workers, in particular older women. The answer depends to a large extent on the ratio of older individuals’ productivity to their cost to employers. To address this question we tap into a unique firm-level panel of Belgian data to produce robust evidence on the causal effect of age/gender on productivity and labour costs. We take advantage of the panel structure to identify age/gender-related differences from within-firm variation. Moreover, inspired by recent developments in the production function estimation literature, we address the problem of endogeneity of the age/gender mix, using a structural production function estimator (Olley & Pakes, 1996; Levinsohn & Petrin, 2003) alongside IV-GMM methods where lagged value of labour inputs are used as instruments. Our results indicate a small negative impact of larger shares of older men on the productivity-labour cost ratio. An increment of 10%-points of in their share causes a 0.17 to 0.69%-point contraction. However, the main result is that the equivalent handicap with older women is larger, ranging from 1.3 to 2.0%-points. This is not good news for older women’s employability. And the vast services industry does not seem to offer working conditions that mitigate older women’s disadvantage, on the contrary.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) in its series Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) with number 2011010.

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Length: 35
Date of creation: 25 Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvir:2011010

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Keywords: Ageing; Labour Productivity; Panel Data Analysis;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Christian Pfeifer & Joachim Wagner, 2012. "Age and gender composition of the workforce, productivity and profits: Evidence from a new type of data for German enterprises," Working Paper Series in Economics, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics 232, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  2. Vandenberghe, V., 2013. "Are firms willing to employ a greying and feminizing workforce?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 30-46.
  3. Stephan Kampelmann & François Rycx, 2012. "Are Occupations Paid What They are Worth? An Econometric Study of Occupational Wage Inequality and Productivity," De Economist, Springer, Springer, vol. 160(3), pages 257-287, September.
  4. Stephan Humpert, 2012. "Age and Gender Differences in Job Opportunities," Working Paper Series in Economics, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics 235, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  5. Lovász, Anna & Rigó, Mariann, 2013. "Vintage effects, aging and productivity," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 47-60.
  6. Lara LEBEDINSKI & Vincent VANDENBERGHE, 2013. "Assessing education's contribution to productivity using firm-level evidence," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales), Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) 2013017, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).

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