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Capital Injection, Restructuring Targets and Personnel Management: The Case of Japanese Regional Banks

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  • Kazuki Onji, David Vera and Jenny Corbett

Abstract

A case study of the Japanese bank recapitalization by Hoshi and Kashyap (2005) identified a bank that overstated the progress of required personnel downsizing by shifting employees to subsidiaries. This paper asks if the recapitalization program had a systematic flaw in design. We focus on regional banks with a unique panel dataset of 82 banking groups that allows us to observe the employment levels of subsidiaries, in addition to those of parent banks, over fiscal 1994--2006. We estimate a labor-demand equation with sluggish adjustment to compare the employment patterns of public capital recipients and other banks. We found 4 banks increased subsidiary employment after receiving capital injection, but only temporarily. This temporary effect suggests that the personnel shifting was essentially layoffs. Our finding indicates that, despite the limited transparency of personnel sizes on the consolidated basis, rules on capital injection provided incentives for most recipients to pursue downsizing.

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File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/pdf/pep/apep-390.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Australia-Japan Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University in its series Asia Pacific Economic Papers with number 390.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:csg:ajrcau:390

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  1. Kato, Takao, 2001. "The End of Lifetime Employment in Japan?: Evidence from National Surveys and Field Research," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 489-514, December.
  2. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Takeo Hoshi & Anil K Kashyap, 2008. "Will the U.S. Bank Recapitalization Succeed? Eight Lessons from Japan," NBER Working Papers 14401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Adam B. Ashcraft, 2001. "New evidence on the lending channel," Staff Reports 136, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  5. Roger H. Gordon & James R. Hines Jr., 2002. "International Taxation," NBER Working Papers 8854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  7. Montgomery, Heather & Shimizutani, Satoshi, 2009. "The effectiveness of bank recapitalization policies in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-25, January.
  8. David Roodman, 2009. "A Note on the Theme of Too Many Instruments," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(1), pages 135-158, 02.
  9. Freixas, Xavier & Loranth, Gyongyi & Morrison, Alan D., 2007. "Regulating financial conglomerates," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 479-514, October.
  10. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  11. Hiroshi Nakaso, 1999. "Recent banking sector reforms in Japan," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 1-7.
  12. Hashimoto, Masanori & Raisian, John, 1985. "Employment Tenure and Earnings Profiles in Japan and the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 721-35, September.
  13. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Montgomery, Heather & Takahashi, Yuki, 2011. "Bank recapitalization in the U.S. - lessons from Japan," MPRA Paper 33147, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Ushijima, Tatsuo & Schaede, Ulrike, 2014. "The market for corporate subsidiaries in Japan: An empirical study of trades among listed firms," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 36-52.
  3. Chen, Sichong, 2013. "How do leverage ratios affect bank share performance during financial crises: The Japanese experience of the late 1990s," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-18.

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