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Determinants And Effects Of Mergers And Acquisitions: An Analysis Based On The Notifications To Antitrust Authorities

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Abstract

Using the Italian and European Union competition authorities databases over the 1991-1994 period, this paper analyses the ownership reallocation process in Italy, in terms of the characteristics of acquired firms and the effects of ownership changes. Our results show that acquired firms’ financial and profitability characteristics in the years before the acquisition are, accordingly with previous literature, worse than the control sample, and that their performance deteriorates as long as the change in ownership approaches. As far as the effects of acquisitions are concerned, the impact is negative, even if not significantly, in the short-run as well as four years after the acquisition. A subsequent stratification of the sample allows a separate analysis for three groups of particular operations: privatised firms are only slightly worse than control sample before the acquisition and the performance improvement occurs mainly before and only slightly after the acquisition; independent firms acquired by foreign multinationals do not differ from the control sample before the acquisition, while their performance clearly worsen after the change in ownership; firms acquired through leveraged and management buyouts perform better than the control sample before the acquisition. These results are consistent with most industrial organization literature, except for firms acquired by foreign multinationals.

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Paper provided by Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) in its series CERIS Working Paper with number 199915.

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Length: 58 pages Keywords : Mergers and Acquisitions, privatization, leveraged and management buyout, foreign acquisitions
Date of creation: Dec 1999
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Handle: RePEc:csc:cerisp:199915

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  1. William L. Megginson & Jeffry M. Netter, 1999. "From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization," Working Papers 1999.1, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  2. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
  3. Harris, Robert S & Ravenscraft, David, 1991. " The Role of Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the U.S. Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 825-44, July.
  4. Bertero, Elisabetta & Rondi, Laura, 2000. "Financial pressure and the behaviour of public enterprises under soft and hard budget constraints: evidence from Italian panel data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 73-98, January.
  5. Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1995. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521465618, October.
    • Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1998. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521633574, October.
  6. Dennis Mueller, 1996. "Antimerger policy in the United States: History and lessons," Empirica, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 229-253, October.
  7. Mueller, Dennis C, 1969. "A Theory of Conglomerate Mergers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 643-59, November.
  8. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
  9. K Amess, . "Management Buyouts and Firm-Level Performance," SMF Discussion Paper Series 9702, University of Nottingham, School of Management & Finance.
  10. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 351.
  11. Frank R. Lichtenberg & Donald Siegel, 1987. "Productivity and Changes in Ownership of Manufactoring Plants," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 643-684.
  12. Scott, John T., 1989. "Purposive diversification as a motive for merger," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 35-47, March.
  13. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 110.
  14. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
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