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The Shape of Hiring and Separation Costs

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  • Francis Kramarz

    (Crest)

  • Marie-Laure Michaud

    (Crest)

Abstract

In this article, we estimate the structure of costs of hiring, terminating, and retiring employees in France using a representative sample of French establishments. The estimates are estimated using a panel data set for two years (1992 and 1996) that matches two sources: the Wage Structure Survey (Enquête sur la Structure des Salaires) and the Workforce Questionnaire (Déclarations des Mouvements de Main-d'Oeuvre). We show that separation costs are significantly larger than hiring costs. The cost of hiring into Permanent Contracts is larger than the cost of hiring into Fixed Term Contracts and collective termination (dismissal of at least ten workers during a 30 days period) are much more expensive than individual terminations. Hiring and separations are similar in one aspect: they entail no firm-specific fixed cost. Furthermore, the termination and hiring costs are concave, and induce firms to group their hirings (into Permanent Contracts) and separations. Retirement costs are linear. Finally, legislation appears to be a major component of these costs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique in its series Working Papers with number 2002-38.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:crs:wpaper:2002-38

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  1. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1988. "Labor Demand and the Structure of Adjustment Costs," NBER Working Papers 2572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Blanchard, Olivier & Wolfers, Justin, 2000. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C1-33, March.
  3. Bentolila, Samuel & Bertola, Giuseppe, 1990. "Firing Costs and Labour Demand: How Bad Is Eurosclerosis?," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 381-402, July.
  4. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis, 2003. "The costs of hiring and separations," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 499-530, October.
  5. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  6. Heckman, James J & Willis, Robert J, 1977. "A Beta-logistic Model for the Analysis of Sequential Labor Force Participation by Married Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(1), pages 27-58, February.
  7. Richard Layard & Stephen Nickell, 1998. "Labour Market Institutions and Economic Performance," CEP Discussion Papers dp0407, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  8. Bertola, Giuseppe, 1990. "Job security, employment and wages," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 851-879, June.
  9. P Garibaldi, 1995. "Job Flow Dynamics and Firing Restrictions," CEP Discussion Papers dp0256, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  10. Dominique Goux & Eric Maurin & Marianne Pauchet, 1999. "Fixed-term Contracts and the Dynamics of Labour Demand," Working Papers, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique 99-02, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  11. Stephen Machin & Alan Manning, 1998. "The causes and consequences of long-term unemployment in Europe," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20255, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
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