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Firm Value and Managerial Incentives: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

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  • Habib, Michel Antoine
  • Ljungqvist, Alexander P

Abstract

We examine the relation between firm value and managerial incentives in a sample of 1487 US firms in 1992-1997, for which the separation of ownership and control is complete. Unlike previous studies, we employ a measure of relative performance which compares a firm’s actual Tobin’s Q to the Q* of a hypothetical fully-efficient firm having the same inputs and characteristics as the original firm. We find that the Q of the average firm in our sample is around 10% lower than its Q*, equivalent to a $1340 million reduction in its potential market value. We investigate what causes firms to fail to reach their Q* and find that our firms are more efficient, the higher the CEO stockholdings and option holdings are, and the more sensitive CEO options are to firm risk. We also show that boards respond to inefficiency by subsequently strengthening incentives or replacing inefficient CEOs.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 2564.

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Date of creation: Sep 2000
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2564

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Keywords: Equity Incentives; Principal-Agent Problem; Separation Of Ownership And Control;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Richard Chung & Scott Fung & Szu-Yin Hung, 2012. "Institutional Investors and Firm Efficiency of Real Estate Investment Trusts," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 171-211, June.
  2. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Measuring the performance of banks: theory, practice, evidence, and some policy implications," Working Papers 13-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  3. Gormley, Todd A. & Matsa, David A. & Milbourn, Todd, 2013. "CEO compensation and corporate risk: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 79-101.
  4. Lucian Arye Bebchuk & Jesse M. Fried, 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 71-92, Summer.
  5. Bulan, Laarni & Sanyal, Paroma & Yan, Zhipeng, 2010. "A few bad apples: An analysis of CEO performance pay and firm productivity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 273-306, July.
  6. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2011. "Who said large banks don't experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Working Papers 11-27, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  7. repec:dgr:uvatin:2009076 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. O'Connor, Matthew L. & Rafferty, Matthew, 2010. "Incentive effects of executive compensation and the valuation of firm assets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 431-442, September.
  9. Kim, Jeong-Bon & Li, Yinghua & Zhang, Liandong, 2011. "CFOs versus CEOs: Equity incentives and crashes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 713-730, September.
  10. Jayesh Kumar, 2004. "Share holding Pattern and Firm Performance," Finance 0409008, EconWPA.
  11. Beladi, Hamid & Quijano, Margot, 2013. "CEO incentives for risk shifting and its effect on corporate bank loan cost," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 182-188.
  12. O’Connor, Matthew & Rafferty, Matthew & Sheikh, Aamer, 2013. "Equity compensation and the sensitivity of research and development to financial market frictions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2510-2519.
  13. Quader, Manzur & Taylor, Karl, 2014. "Corporate Efficiency, Credit Status and Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 8285, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Ezzeddine Ben Mohamed & Baccar Ame & Abdelfatteh Bouri, 2013. "Investment Cash Flow Sensitivity and Managerial Optimism: A Literature Review via the Classification Scheme Technique," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 5(1), pages 007-026, June.

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