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Out of Equilibrium Profit and Innovation

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  • Cristiano Antonelli
  • Giuseppe Scellato

Abstract

Innovation is the result of intentional decision-making that takes place in out-of-equilibrium conditions. Profitability is a reliable indicator of equilibrium conditions, far better than competition, as it integrates the effects of out-of-equilibrium conditions in both product and factor markets. The farther the profitability from the average, the deeper the out-of-equilibrium conditions. The farther away the firm from equilibrium, the stronger the likelihood for innovation to take place. The hypothesis of a U-shaped relationship between levels of profitability and innovative activity, as measured by the rates of increase in total factor productivity (TFP), is articulated and tested. The evidence from a large sample of 7000 Italian manufacturing firms in the years 1996-2005 confirms the presence of a quadratic, convex relationship between profitability and the growth rates of TFP.

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Paper provided by David K. Levine in its series Levine's Working Paper Archive with number 814577000000000071.

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Date of creation: 15 Jan 2009
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Handle: RePEc:cla:levarc:814577000000000071

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  1. Fisher, Franklin M & Temin, Peter, 1973. "Returns to Scale in Research and Development: What Does the Schumpeterian Hypothesis Imply ?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(1), pages 56-70, Jan.-Feb..
  2. Antonelli, Cristiano, 2003. "Localized Technological Change," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200305, University of Turin.
  3. Alfred D. Chandler, 1969. "Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262530090, December.
  4. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  5. King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance and growth : Schumpeter might be right," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1083, The World Bank.
  6. repec:fth:wobaco:1083 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1989. "A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 8904, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
  8. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  10. Antonelli, Cristiano, 2004. "The System Dynamics of Collective Knowledge: from Gradualism and Saltationism to Punctuated Change," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200404, University of Turin.
  11. Parisi, Maria Laura & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2006. "Productivity, innovation and R&D: Micro evidence for Italy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(8), pages 2037-2061, November.
  12. Antonelli, Cristiano, 1989. "A failure-inducement model of research and development expenditure : Italian evidence from the early 1980s," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 159-180, October.
  13. Schumpeter, Joseph A., 1947. "The Creative Response in Economic History," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 149-159, November.
  14. Antonelli, Cristiano, 1986. "The international diffusion of new information technologies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 139-147, June.
  15. Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 1993. "Working Capital and Fixed Investment: New Evidence on Financing Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 328-342, Autumn.
  16. Link, Albert N, 1980. "Firm Size and Efficient Entrepreneurial Activity: A Reformulation of the Schumpeter Hypothesis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(4), pages 771-82, August.
  17. Giuseppe Scellato, 2007. "Patents, firm size and financial constraints: an empirical analysis for a panel of Italian manufacturing firms," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(1), pages 55-76, January.
  18. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Scholarly Articles 12490578, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  19. Atkinson, Anthony B & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1969. "A New View of Technological Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 79(315), pages 573-78, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Cristiano Antonelli & Gianluigi Ferraris, 2011. "Innovation as an Emerging System Property: An Agent Based Simulation Model," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 14(2), pages 1.
  2. Antonelli Cristiano & Ferraris Gianluigi, 2012. "Endogenous knowledge externalities: an agent based simulation model where schumpeter meets Marshall," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201202, University of Turin.
  3. Gehringer, Agnieszka, 2010. "Pecuniary knowledge externalities and innovation: Intersectoral linkages and their effects beyond technological spillovers," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 100, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  4. repec:got:cegedp:100 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Antonelli, Cristiano & Crespi, Francesco & Scellato, Giuseppe, 2013. "Path Dependent Patterns of Persistence in Productivity Growth," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201323, University of Turin.
  6. Antonelli, Cristiano & Crespi, Francesco & Scellato, Giuseppe, 2012. "Internal and external factors in innovation persistence," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 201211, University of Turin.

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