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The Increase of the Size of the Shadow Economy of 18 OECD Countries: Some Preliminary Explanations

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  • Friedrich Schneider

Abstract

The latest empirical results of the size of the shadow economy in 18 OECD countries are presented, using the currency demand approach to calculate the shadow economy over time. The results indicate a strong increase in the size of the shadow economy, over the period 1960 to 1998 and for 15 of the 18 investigated OECD-countries the size of the shadow economy is more than 13% of the GNP for the year 1998. Also an analysis is given about the size of influences of major causes (direct and indirect tax burden and government regulation) on the shadow economy for Austria.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2000/wp-cesifo-2000-06/cesifo_wp306.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 306.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_306

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  1. Tanzi, Vito, 1999. "Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F338-47, June.
  2. Clotfelter, Charles T, 1976. "Public Spending for Higher Education: An Empirical Test of Two Hypotheses," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 31(2), pages 177-95.
  3. Frey, Bruno S & Pommerehne, Werner W, 1984. "The Hidden Economy: State and Prospects for Measurement," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 30(1), pages 1-23, March.
  4. Willi Leibfritz & John Thornton & Alexandra Bibbee, 1997. "Taxation and Economic Performance," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 176, OECD Publishing.
  5. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F370-80, June.
  6. J. J. Thomas, 1986. "The Underground Economy in the United States: A Comment on Tanzi," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(4), pages 782-789, December.
  7. Werner W. Pommerehne, 1983. "Steuerhinterziehung und Schwarzarbeit als Grenzen der Staatstätigkeit," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 119(III), pages 261-284, September.
  8. Clotfelter, Charles T, 1983. "Tax Evasion and Tax Rates: An Analysis of Individual Returns," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 363-73, August.
  9. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strom, Steinar, 1980. " The Hidden Economy: The Labor Market and Tax Evasion," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 82(2), pages 304-11.
  10. Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 1998. "Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 387-92, May.
  11. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strom, Steiner, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(1), pages 21-38, March.
  12. Franz, Alfred, 1985. "Estimates of the Hidden Economy in Austria on the Basis of Official Statistics," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(4), pages 325-36, December.
  13. Friedrich Schneider & Dominik Enste, 2000. "Shadow Economies Around the World," IMF Working Papers 00/26, International Monetary Fund.
  14. Phillip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to the Total Money Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 303.
  15. Schneider, Friedrich, 1986. " Estimating the Size of the Danish Shadow Economy Using the Currency Demand Approach: An Attempt," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(4), pages 643-68.
  16. Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number caga58-1, May.
  17. Friedrich Schneider & Dominik Enste, 1999. "Shadow Economies Around the World - Size, Causes, and Consequences," CESifo Working Paper Series 196, CESifo Group Munich.
  18. Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Chapters, in: The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply, pages 1-37 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Friedman, Eric & Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 2000. "Dodging the grabbing hand: the determinants of unofficial activity in 69 countries," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 459-493, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Friedrich Schneider & Robert Klinglmair, 2004. "Shadow Economies Around the World: What Do We Know?," CREMA Working Paper Series 2004-03, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  2. Thomas E. Borcherding & J. Stephen Ferris & Andrea Garzoni, 2001. "Growth in the Real Size of Government Since 1970," Carleton Economic Papers 01-06, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
  3. Schneider, Friedrich G. & Buehn, Andreas, 2007. "Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: revised estimates for 120 countries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 1(9 (Versio), pages 1-53.
  4. Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Illegal Activities, but Still Value Added Ones (?): Size, Causes, and Measurement of the Shadow Economies all over the World," CESifo Working Paper Series 305, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Carlo V Fiorio & Francesco D'Amuri, 2005. "Workers' Tax Evasion in Italy," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 64(2-3), pages 247-270, November.
  6. Friedrich Schneider, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really Know?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1806, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Schneider, Friedrich, 2008. "The Shadow Economy in Germany - A Blessing or a Curse for the Official Economy?," Economic Analysis and Policy (EAP), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Economics and Finance, vol. 38(1), pages 89-111, March.
  8. Garrido, Nicolás & Mittone, Luigi, 2013. "An agent based model for studying optimal tax collection policy using experimental data: The cases of Chile and Italy," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 24-30.
  9. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche, 2003. "Is the Completion of EU Single Market Hindered by VAT Evasion?," CESifo Working Paper Series 974, CESifo Group Munich.
  10. Stefano Micossi, 2006. "L’impresa tra dirigismo e mercato," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 96(4), pages 13-48, July-Augu.
  11. Nikopour, Hesam & Shah Habibullah, Muzafar & Schneider, Friedrich & Law, Siong Hook, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment and Shadow Economy: A Causality Analysis Using Panel Data," MPRA Paper 14485, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Leandro Elia & Edoardo Di Porto, 2011. "Undeclared Work And Wage Inequality," Working Papers 201108, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza (Ex Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica).
  13. Aleksandar Stulhofer & Ivan Rimac, 2002. "Opportunism, Institutions and Moral Costs: the Socio-Cultural Dimension of the Underground Economy in Croatia 1995-1999," Occasional paper series 14, Institute of Public Finance.
  14. Dan Anderberg, 2003. "Insiders, Outsiders, and the Underground Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 1048, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. Busato; Francesco & Bruno Chiarini & Vincenzo di Maro, 2005. "Directional Congestion and Regime Switching in a Long Memory Model for Electricity Prices," Economics Working Papers 2005-19, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  16. Andreas Bühn & Alexander Karmann & Friedrich Schneider, 2007. "Size and Development of the Shadow Economy and of Do-it-yourself Activities in Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 2021, CESifo Group Munich.

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