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The Shadow Economies Of The Asia-Pacific

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  • Christopher Bajada
  • Friedrich Schneider

Abstract

Despite continuous government attempts to increase taxpayer compliance, the shadow economy continues to offer a way for taxpayers to evade their taxpaying obligations. The consequences are clear: policy-makers have increasingly imperfect knowledge about the state of economic affairs as shadow economy activity expands. We provide the first known estimates of the shadow economy for 17 Asia-Pacific countries. We show that, not only have these activities grown over the last ten years, but countries with relatively thin taxpayer compliance initiatives experience the greatest shadow economy activity. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

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File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0106.2005.00280.x
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Pacific Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 10 (2005)
Issue (Month): 3 (October)
Pages: 379-401

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Handle: RePEc:bla:pacecr:v:10:y:2005:i:3:p:379-401

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Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1361-374X

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References

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  1. Petersen, Hans-Georg, 1982. "Size of the Public Sector, Economic Growth and the Informal Economy: Development Trends in the Federal Republic of Germany," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 28(2), pages 191-215, June.
  2. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
  3. Phillip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to the Total Money Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 303.
  4. Frey, Bruno S. & Weck-Hanneman, Hannelore, 1984. "The hidden economy as an 'unobserved' variable," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1-2), pages 33-53.
  5. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F370-80, June.
  6. Schneider, Friedrich, 1986. " Estimating the Size of the Danish Shadow Economy Using the Currency Demand Approach: An Attempt," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 88(4), pages 643-68.
  7. Bhattacharyya, Dilip K, 1999. "On the Economic Rationale of Estimating the Hidden Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F348-59, June.
  8. J. J. Thomas, 1986. "The Underground Economy in the United States: A Comment on Tanzi," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(4), pages 782-789, December.
  9. Bajada, Christopher, 1999. "Estimates of the Underground Economy in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 75(231), pages 369-84, December.
  10. Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number caga58-1, May.
  11. Tanzi, Vito, 1999. "Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F338-47, June.
  12. Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Chapters, in: The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply, pages 1-37 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Frey, Bruno S & Weck, Hannelore, 1983. "Estimating the Shadow Economy: A 'Naive' Approach," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(1), pages 23-44, March.
  14. Contini, Bruno B, 1981. "Labor Market Segmentation and the Development of the Parallel Economy-The Italian Experience," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(3), pages 401-12, November.
  15. Klovland, Jan Tore, 1984. " Tax Evasion and the Demand for Currency in Norway and Sweden. Is There a Hidden Relationship?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(4), pages 423-39.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Brambila Macias, Jose, 2008. "Modeling the Informal Economy in Mexico. A Structural Equation Approach," MPRA Paper 8504, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Lars P. Feld & Friedrich Schneider, 2010. "Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Earnings in OECD Countries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11, pages 109-149, 05.
  3. Luisanna Onnis & Patrizio Tirelli, 2010. "Challenging the popular wisdom. New estimates of the unobserved economy," Working Papers 184, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2010.
  4. Martin Halla, 2010. "Tax Morale and Compliance Behavior: First Evidence on a Causal Link," NRN working papers 2010-05, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  5. Duarte, Pablo, 2014. "The relationship between GDP and the size of the informal economy: Empirical evidence for Spain," Working Papers 127, University of Leipzig, Faculty of Economics and Management Science.
  6. Gemmell, Norman & Hasseldine, John, 2012. "The Tax Gap: A Methodological Review," Working Paper Series 2435, Victoria University of Wellington, Chair in Public Finance.
  7. Pierre-Guillaume Meon & Friedrich Schneider & Laurent Weill, 2011. "Does taking the shadow economy into account matter when measuring aggregate efficiency?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(18), pages 2303-2311.
  8. Eiji Yamamura, 2014. "Trust in government and its effect on preferences for income redistribution and perceived tax burden," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 71-100, February.
  9. Roberto Dell´Anno, 2007. "The shadow economy in Portugal: An analysis with the MIMIC approach," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 253-277, November.
  10. Vjekoslav Klaric, 2011. "Estimating the size of non-observed economy in Croatia using the MIMIC approach," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 35(1), pages 59-90.
  11. Dominik Enste, 2010. "Shadow Economy - The Impact of Regulation in OECD-countries," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 555-571.
  12. Buehn, Andreas & Schneider, Friedrich, 2009. "Corruption and the Shadow Economy: A Structural Equation Model Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 4182, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Junmin Wan, 2006. "The Incentive to Declare Taxes and Tax Revenue: The Lottery Receipt Experiment in China," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 06-25, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  14. Roberto Dell’Anno & Friedrich G. Schneider, 2006. "Estimating the underground economy by using MIMIC models: A response to T. Breusch´s critique," Economics working papers 2006-07, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  15. Andreas Buehn & Friedrich Schneider, 2012. "Corruption and the shadow economy: like oil and vinegar, like water and fire?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 172-194, February.
  16. Luisanna Onnis & Patrizio Tirelli, 2011. "Institutions, policies and economic development. What are the causes of the shadow economy?," Working Papers 206, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2011.

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