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An ‘Algorithmic Links With Probabilities’ Concordance For Trademarks: For Disaggregated Analysis Of Trademark & Economic Data

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  • Nikolas Zolas
  • Travis J. Lybbert
  • Prantik Bhattacharyya

Abstract

Trademarks (TMs) shape the competitive landscape of markets for goods and services in all countries through branding and conveying information and quality inherent in products. Yet, researchers are largely unable to conduct rigorous empirical analysis of TMs in the modern economy because TM data and economic activity data are organized differently and cannot be analyzed jointly at the industry or sectoral level. We propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ (ALP) approach to match TM data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, we construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, we apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. We also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications. We conclude with a discussion of possible extensions of this work, including deeper indicator-level concordances and further analyses that are possible once TM data are linked with economic activity data.

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File URL: ftp://ftp2.census.gov/ces/wp/2013/CES-WP-13-49.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 13-49.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:13-49

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  1. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
  2. David Weinstein & Christian Broda, 2004. "Globalization and the Gains from Variety," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings, Econometric Society 508, Econometric Society.
  3. Yang, Chih-Hai & Kuo, Nai-Fong, 2008. "Trade-related influences, foreign intellectual property rights and outbound international patenting," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 446-459, April.
  4. Rujas, Javier, 1999. "Trade marks: complementary to patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-39, March.
  5. Baroncelli, Eugenia & Krivonos, Ekaterina & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2004. "Trademark protection or protectionism?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3214, The World Bank.
  6. Sandro Mendonça & Tiago Santos Pereira & Manuel Mira Godinho, 2004. "Trademarks as an Indicator of Innovation and Industrial Change," LEM Papers Series, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy 2004/15, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  7. Park, Walter G., 2008. "International patent protection: 1960-2005," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 761-766, May.
  8. Andrea Mangani, 2007. "Measuring Variety and Quality of Products with Trademarks," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 613-631.
  9. Malmberg, Claes, 2005. "Trademarks Statistics as Innovation Indicator? - A Micro Study," CIRCLE Electronic Working Papers, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy 2005/17, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  10. Rauch, James E., 1999. "Networks versus markets in international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 7-35, June.
  11. Eugenia Baroncelli & Carsten Fink & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik, 2005. "The Global Distribution of Trademarks: Some Stylised Facts," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(6), pages 765-782, 06.
  12. Ramello, Giovanni, 2006. "What's in a sign? Trademark law and enconomic theory," POLIS Working Papers, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS 67, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
  13. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
  14. Elizabeth Webster & Paul H. Jensen, 2004. "Patterns of Trademarking Activity in Australia," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne wp2004n02, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
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