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An ‘Algorithmic Links With Probabilities’ Concordance For Trademarks: For Disaggregated Analysis Of Trademark & Economic Data

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  • Nikolas Zolas
  • Travis J. Lybbert
  • Prantik Bhattacharyya
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    Abstract

    Trademarks (TMs) shape the competitive landscape of markets for goods and services in all countries through branding and conveying information and quality inherent in products. Yet, researchers are largely unable to conduct rigorous empirical analysis of TMs in the modern economy because TM data and economic activity data are organized differently and cannot be analyzed jointly at the industry or sectoral level. We propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ (ALP) approach to match TM data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, we construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, we apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. We also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications. We conclude with a discussion of possible extensions of this work, including deeper indicator-level concordances and further analyses that are possible once TM data are linked with economic activity data.

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    File URL: ftp://ftp2.census.gov/ces/wp/2013/CES-WP-13-49.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2013
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 13-49.

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    Length: 38 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:13-49

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    1. Mendonca, Sandro & Pereira, Tiago Santos & Godinho, Manuel Mira, 2004. "Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1385-1404, November.
    2. Christian Broda & David E. Weinstein, 2006. "Globalization and the Gains from Variety," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 121(2), pages 541-585, May.
    3. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
    4. Baroncelli, Eugenia & Kink, Carsten & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2004. "The global distribution of trademarks - some stylized facts," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3270, The World Bank.
    5. Elizabeth Webster & Paul H. Jensen, 2004. "Patterns of Trademarking Activity in Australia," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2004n02, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    6. Andrea Mangani, 2007. "Measuring Variety and Quality of Products with Trademarks," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 613-631.
    7. Rujas, Javier, 1999. "Trade marks: complementary to patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-39, March.
    8. James E. Rauch, 1996. "Networks versus Markets in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 5617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Park, Walter G., 2008. "International patent protection: 1960-2005," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 761-766, May.
    10. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
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