The Productivity Advantage and Global Scope of U.S. Multinational Firms
AbstractThis paper examines whether the productivity of U.S. business establishments is related to the extent to which their parent firms are globally engaged--from being an exporter to being a fledgling multinational that has taken a few cautious forays into foreign markets to being a seasoned multinational with extensive foreign operations. Theory suggests that multinationals possess proprietary assets that confer a productivity advantage over their domestically-oriented rivals, and that this advantage is positively correlated with the global scope of a firm’s operations. That is, those firms with the greatest productivity advantage are able to absorb the costs and overcome the risks of operating in a wide range of foreign countries, from those where it is relatively riskfree and economical to operate, to those where it is risky, difficult, and costly. This connection between the multinational’s widening of its geographic scope of operations and its productivity can be self-reinforcing. Once a multinational has successfully operated in a risky environment, it may benefit from learning effects that can lower the cost and risk of further enlargement of geographic scope. The positive correlation between a firm’s global engagement and its level of productivity has already been demonstrated. This paper extends that research by testing whether the correlation holds up when productivity is measured at the level of the individual establishment, rather than at the level of the consolidated business enterprise. It also examines whether the correlation between global engagement and productivity exists in non-manufacturing industries. Finally, it examines whether linkages between the multinational’s domestic and foreign operations, in the form of imports of goods by the parent company from its foreign affiliates, enhance the productivity of the multinational’s domestic business establishments. The findings confirm the positive correlation between global scope and productivity and demonstrate that it holds for both manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries. The effect of imports of goods from foreign affiliates on the productivity of the establishments of their parent firm depend on the geographic location of the affiliates: Imports from affiliates in high-income countries tend to be associated with high productivity whereas those from affiliates in low-income countries tend to be associated with low productivity. The study was made possible by combining BEA enterprise-level data on the U.S. operations of U.S. multinational firms with data on all U.S. business establishments collected by the Census Bureau in the U.S. economic census covering 2002.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 11-23.
Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2011
Date of revision:
multinationals; exporting; productivity;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-09-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2011-09-05 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CSE-2011-09-05 (Economics of Strategic Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- J. Bradford Jensen & Robert H. McGuckin & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2001.
"The Impact Of Vintage And Survival On Productivity: Evidence From Cohorts Of U.S. Manufacturing Plants,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 83(2), pages 323-332, May.
- J. Bradford Jensen & Robert H. McGuckin & Kevin Stiroh, 2000. "The Impact of Vintage and Survival on Productivity: Evidence from Cohorts of U.S. Manufacturing Plants," Economics Program Working Papers 00-01, The Conference Board, Economics Program.
- J. Bradford Jensen & Robert H McGuckin & Kevin J Stiroh, 2000. "The Impact of Vintage and Survival on Productivity: Evidence from Cohorts of U.S. Manufacturing Plants," Working Papers 00-06, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Robert H Mcguckin & Bradford J Jensen, 1996.
"Firm Performance And Evolution Empirical Regularities In The U.S. Microdata,"
96-10, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Jensen, J Bradford & McGuckin, Robert H, 1997. "Firm Performance and Evolution: Empirical Regularities in the US Microdata," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 25-47.
- Helpman, Elhanan, 1984.
"A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations,"
3445092, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Helpman, Elhanan, 1984. "A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(3), pages 451-71, June.
- Bernard, A., 1997.
"Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?,"
97-21, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
- Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 1997. "Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?," NBER Working Papers 6272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas Brush & Aneel Karnani, 1996. "Impact of Plant Size and Focus on Productivity: An Empirical Study," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(7), pages 1065-1081, July.
- Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
- Maria Borga & Robert E. Lipsey, 2004. "Factor Prices and Factor Substitution in U.S. Firms' Manufacturing Affiliates Abroad," NBER Working Papers 10442, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
- Yeaple, Stephen Ross, 2009. "Firm heterogeneity and the structure of U.S. multinational activity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 206-215, July.
- Ron S Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2002. "The Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 02-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Chiara Criscuolo & Ralf Martin, 2009.
"Multinationals and U.S. Productivity Leadership: Evidence from Great Britain,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 263-281, May.
- Chiara Criscuolo & Ralf Martin, 2005. "Multinationals and US Productivity Leadership: Evidence from Great Britain," CEP Discussion Papers dp0672, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Chiara Criscuolo & Ralf Martin, 2004. "Multinationals and U.S. Productivity Leadership: Evidence from Great Britain," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2004/5, OECD Publishing.
- Danielle GALLIANO (LEREPS–GRES & INRA–ESR) & Olivier SOULIE (LEREPS-GRES & INRA–ESR), 2007. "Organisational and spatial determinants of the multi-unit firm: Evidence from the French industry," Cahiers du GRES 2007-17, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Joshua D. Gottlieb, 2009.
"The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial Equilibrium in the United States,"
NBER Working Papers
14806, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Joshua D. Gottlieb, 2009. "The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial Equilibrium in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(4), pages 983-1028, December.
- Marc J. Melitz, 2003.
"The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity,"
Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
- Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas W Dwyer, 1997. "Productivity Races II: The Issue of Capital Measurement," Working Papers 97-3, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Danielle Galliano & Nicolas Soulié, 2012. "Organizational and Spatial Determinants of the Multi-unit Firm: Evidence from French Industry," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(7), pages 907-926, October.
- Griffith, Rachel, 1999. "Using the ARD Establishment Level Data to Look at Foreign Ownership and Productivity in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F416-42, June.
- Sang V Nguyen & Arnold P Reznek, 1990. "Returns to Scale in Small and Large U.S. Manufacturing Establishments," Working Papers 90-11, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Fariha Kamal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.