Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth
AbstractThis paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non-linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the other independent variables, we show that military expenditure in the presence of threats increases growth. We explain the presence of these non-linearities in an extended version of Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995), allowing the dependence of growth on the severity of external threats, and on the effective military expenditure associated with these threats.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz in its series Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series with number qt41r4105h.
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2003
Date of revision:
Economic growth; military expenditure; external threats; corruption;
Other versions of this item:
- Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2006. "Military expenditure, threats, and growth," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 129-155.
- Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2003. "Military expenditure, threats, and growth," Working Paper Series 2003-08, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Aizenman, Joshua & Glick, Reuven, 2003. "Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt41r4105h, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2003. "Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 9618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
- F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
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