Necessity or Luxury Good? Household Energy Spending and Income in Britain 1991 - 2007
AbstractThe residential demand for energy is growing steadily and the trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Household spending on energy services tends to increase with income. We explore household total spending on energy and on electricity and gas separately. We use an extensive British household panel data with more than 77,000 observations for the 1991-2007 period to explore the determinants of energy spending. We analyse income as a main driver of spending on energy and draw Engel spending curves for these. The lack of household level price data in liberalized retail energy markets is addressed by a new modelling approach to reflect within and between regional differences in energy prices. Also, long run changes in energy spending of households are approximated by exploring unit effects. The main results show the Engel spending curves are S-shaped. Income elasticities for energy spending are U-shaped and lower than unity, suggesting that energy services are a necessity for households. Moreover, the findings show that the income elasticity of energy spending is somewhat higher in the long run. Finally, we find a dynamic link between energy spending and income changes rather than a fixed budget threshold where basic needs are met. Hence, we suggest policy approaches that enable households to find their individual utility maximizing energy spending levels.Keywords: Burr distribution; Durations; Range; Score; Un-observed components; Weibull distribution
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge in its series Cambridge Working Papers in Economics with number 1239.
Date of creation: 04 Oct 2012
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Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
- Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-13 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2012-10-13 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-REG-2012-10-13 (Regulation)
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