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Liquidity costs and tiering in large-value payment systems

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  • Adams, Mark

    ()
    (Bank of England)

  • Galbiati, Marco

    ()
    (Bank of England)

  • Giansante, Simone

    ()
    (CCFEA, University of Essex)

Abstract

This paper develops and simulates a model of the emergence of networks in an interbank, RTGS payment system. A number of banks, faced with random streams of payment orders, choose whether to link directly to the payment system, or to use a correspondent bank. Settling payments directly on the system imposes liquidity costs which depend on the maximum liquidity overdraft incurred during the day. On the other hand, using a correspondent entails paying a flat fee, charged by the correspondent to recoup liquidity costs and to extract a profit. We specify a protocol whereby one bank in each period can revisit its choice whether to link directly to the system, or to become clients of other banks, thus generating a dynamic client-correspondent network. We simulate this protocol, observing the emergence of different network structures. The liquidity pricing regime chosen by a central bank is found to affect the tiering process and the network structures it produces. A calibration exercise on data from the UK CHAPS system suggests that the model is able to generate realistic predictions, ie a network topology similar to that observed in reality, driven solely by the underlying pattern of payments and the structure of liquidity costs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 399.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: 29 Jul 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0399

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Keywords: Tiering; liquidity cost; large-value payment system; RTGS; network formation;

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References

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  1. Kimmo Soramaki & Morten L. Bech & Jeffrey Arnold & Robert J. Glass & Walter Beyeler, 2006. "The topology of interbank payment flows," Staff Reports 243, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  2. James Chapman & Jonathan Chiu & Miguel Molico, 2013. "A Model of Tiered Settlement Networks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(2-3), pages 327-347, 03.
  3. Becher, Christopher & Millard, Stephen & Soramäki, Kimmo, 2008. "The network topology of CHAPS Sterling," Bank of England working papers 355, Bank of England.
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Cited by:
  1. Robert Arculus & Jennifer Hancock & Greg Moran, 2012. "The Impact of Payment System Design on Tiering Incentives," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2012-06, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  2. Spiros Bougheas & Alan Kirman, 2014. "Complex Financial Networks and Systemic Risk: A Review," Discussion Papers 2014/04, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).

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