Liquidity costs and tiering in large-value payment systems
AbstractThis paper develops and simulates a model of the emergence of networks in an interbank, RTGS payment system. A number of banks, faced with random streams of payment orders, choose whether to link directly to the payment system, or to use a correspondent bank. Settling payments directly on the system imposes liquidity costs which depend on the maximum liquidity overdraft incurred during the day. On the other hand, using a correspondent entails paying a flat fee, charged by the correspondent to recoup liquidity costs and to extract a profit. We specify a protocol whereby one bank in each period can revisit its choice whether to link directly to the system, or to become clients of other banks, thus generating a dynamic client-correspondent network. We simulate this protocol, observing the emergence of different network structures. The liquidity pricing regime chosen by a central bank is found to affect the tiering process and the network structures it produces. A calibration exercise on data from the UK CHAPS system suggests that the model is able to generate realistic predictions, ie a network topology similar to that observed in reality, driven solely by the underlying pattern of payments and the structure of liquidity costs.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 399.
Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: 29 Jul 2010
Date of revision:
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Tiering; liquidity cost; large-value payment system; RTGS; network formation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C70 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - General
- G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-08-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-BAN-2010-08-06 (Banking)
- NEP-NET-2010-08-06 (Network Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Becher, Christopher & Millard, Stephen & SoramÃÂÃÂ¤ki, Kimmo, 2008. "The network topology of CHAPS Sterling," Bank of England working papers 355, Bank of England.
- James Chapman & Jonathan Chiu & Miguel Molico, 2013.
"A Model of Tiered Settlement Networks,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(2-3), pages 327-347, 03.
- Kimmo Soramaki & Morten L. Bech & Jeffrey Arnold & Robert J. Glass & Walter Beyeler, 2006.
"The topology of interbank payment flows,"
243, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Soramäki, Kimmo & Bech, Morten L. & Arnold, Jeffrey & Glass, Robert J. & Beyeler, Walter E., 2007. "The topology of interbank payment flows," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 379(1), pages 317-333.
- Robert Arculus & Jennifer Hancock & Greg Moran, 2012. "The Impact of Payment System Design on Tiering Incentives," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2012-06, Reserve Bank of Australia.
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