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Towards a Network Description of Interbank Payment Flows

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  • Marc Pr�pper
  • Iman van Lelyveld
  • Ronald Heijmans

Abstract

We present the application of network theory to the Dutch payment system with specific attention to systemic stability. The network nodes comprise of domestic banks, large international banks and TARGET countries, the links are established by payments between the nodes. Traditional measures (transactions, values) first show payments are relatively well behaved through time and that the system does not contain a group of significant structural net receivers or payers among the participant institutions. Structural circular flows do, however, exist in the system, most prominently a large circular net flow between TARGET countries. Analysis of the properties of prominent network measures over time shows that fast network development takes place in the early phase of network formation of about one hour and slower development afterwards. The payment network is small (in actual nodes and links), compact (in path length and eccentricity) and sparse (in connectivity) for all time periods. In the long run, a mere 12% of the possible number of interbank connections is ever used and banks are on average only 2 steps apart. Relations in the network tend to be reciprocal. Our results also indicate that the network is susceptible to directed attacks. In a final section we show that the recent �sub prime' turmoil in credit markets has not materially affected the network structure.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department in its series DNB Working Papers with number 177.

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Date of creation: May 2008
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Handle: RePEc:dnb:dnbwpp:177

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Related research

Keywords: network; topology; interbank; payment; systemic risk; financial stability;

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References

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  1. Ágnes Lublóy, 2006. "Topology of the Hungarian large-value transfer system," MNB Occasional Papers 2006/57, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (the central bank of Hungary).
  2. Elisabeth Ledrut, 2006. "A tale of the water-supplying plumber: intraday liquidity provision in payment systems," DNB Working Papers 099, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  3. Marcello Pericoli & Massimo Sbracia, 2003. "A Primer on Financial Contagion," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 571-608, 09.
  4. Sanjeev Goyal & Marco J. van der Leij & Jos� Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, 2006. "Economics: An Emerging Small World," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(2), pages 403-432, April.
  5. Morten L. Bech & Rodney J. Garratt, 2012. "Illiquidity in the Interbank Payment System Following Wide‐Scale Disruptions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(5), pages 903-929, 08.
  6. Soramäki, Kimmo & Bech, Morten L. & Arnold, Jeffrey & Glass, Robert J. & Beyeler, Walter E., 2007. "The topology of interbank payment flows," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 379(1), pages 317-333.
  7. Lelyveld, Iman van & Liedorp, Franka, 2004. "Interbank Contagion in the Dutch Banking Sector," MPRA Paper 651, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 Jul 2005.
  8. Rosati, Simonetta & Secola, Stefania, 2005. "Explaining cross-border large-value payment flows: evidence from TARGET and EURO 1 data," Working Paper Series 0443, European Central Bank.
  9. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1998. "Financial Contagion Journal of Political Economy," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-31, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
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Cited by:
  1. Cohen-Cole, Ethan & Patacchini, Eleonora & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Systemic Risk and Network Formation in the Interbank Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 8332, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Martinez-Jaramillo, Serafin & Alexandrova-Kabadjova, Biliana & Bravo-Benitez, Bernardo & Solórzano-Margain, Juan Pablo, 2014. "An empirical study of the Mexican banking system’s network and its implications for systemic risk," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 242-265.
  3. Wetherilt, Anne & Zimmerman, Peter & Soramaki, Kimmo, 2010. "The sterling unsecured loan market during 2006-08: insights from network theory," Bank of England working papers 398, Bank of England.

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