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Cambio tecnológico sesgado: Desigualdad, crecimiento económico y política fiscal

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  • Oscar Iván Ávila

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Abstract

Durante las últimas décadas el incremento en la desigualdad experimentado por algunas economías desarrolladas ha estado relacionado con la adopción de tecnologías que utilizan intensivamente la mano de obra calificada. En este documento se plantea un modelo teórico en el que se recoge parte de la evidencia empírica sobre los efectos del cambio tecnológico sesgado sobre el crecimiento y la desigualdad. De igual forma, se analiza la efectividad de la política pública para suavizar los efectos negativos del cambio tecnológico sobre la brecha salarial y aprovechar sus bondades, en términos de crecimiento. Los resultados del modelo evidencian que ante un choque tecnológico, una política fiscal eficiente permite alcanzar un equilibrio de largo plazo con mayor expansión del PIB y menor brecha salarial que en la situación inicial.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 769.

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Length: 30
Date of creation: May 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:769

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Keywords: Cambio tecnológico sesgado; desigualdad; crecimiento económico; política fiscal. Classification JEL: O3; J31; O40; E62;

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  1. Berman, E. & Bound, J. & Machin, S., 1997. "Implications of Skill-Biased Technological Change: International Evidence," Papers, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics 25, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics.
  2. Francesca Bastagli & David Coady & Sanjeev Gupta, 2012. "Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy (2nd Edition)," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 12/08R, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Binswanger, Hans P, 1974. "A Microeconomic Approach to Induced Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 84(336), pages 940-58, December.
  4. Daron Acemoglu, 2001. "Directed Technical Change," NBER Working Papers 8287, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Daron Acemoglu, 1998. "Why Do New Technologies Complement Skills? Directed Technical Change And Wage Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 113(4), pages 1055-1089, November.
  6. Anthony C. Atkinson, 2003. "Income Inequality in OECD Countries: Data and Explanations," CESifo Working Paper Series 881, CESifo Group Munich.
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