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El Proceso Colombiano de Desindustrialización

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  • Juan José Echavarría

    ()

  • Mauricio Villamizar

    ()

  • colaboración Juanita González

Abstract

El proceso colombiano de industrialización tuvo corta duración. El despegue comenzó en la década de los años 1930s, cuarenta años más tarde que en Argentina, Brasil, Chile o México, y la industria (especialmente la moderna) perdió dinamismo desde los 1960s (empleo) y 1970s (producción). Se trata de dinámicas mundiales parcialmente relacionadas con la productividad relativa del sector y con el impacto de la política económica. La política económica jugó un papel central en la dinámica de la industria. El bajo desarrollo del sector financiero ha restringido el crecimiento del sector, obligando a las firmas a depender exageradamente de utilidades reinvertidas costosas, aún cuando la liberalización financiera de los 1990s tuvo un impacto positivo en materia de productividad. Algo similar sucedió con la apertura arancelaria y paraarancelaria adoptada en ese mismo período. La evidencia empírica confirma que hoy se cuenta con un sector industrial moderno mucho más competitivo, preparado para afrontar el reto de la globalización.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 361.

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Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:361

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  1. Nina Pavcnik, 2002. "Trade Liberalization, Exit, and Productivity Improvements: Evidence from Chilean Plants," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 245-276.
  2. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, . "Financial Dependence and Growth," CRSP working papers 344, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  3. John Williamson, 1994. "The Political Economy of Policy Reform," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 68.
  4. Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  5. Felix Rioja & Neven Valev, 2004. "Finance and the Sources of Growth at Various Stages of Economic Development," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 42(1), pages 127-140, January.
  6. Eduardo Borensztein & Jose De Gregorio & Jong-Wha Lee, 1995. "How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?," NBER Working Papers 5057, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopezde-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," NBER Working Papers 7620, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. J. Bradford De Long & Lawrence H. Summers, 1990. "Equipment Investment and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3515, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Francisco Alcalá & Antonio Ciccone, 2004. "Trade and Productivity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(2), pages 612-645, May.
  10. Carlos Pombo, 1999. "Productividad industrial en Colombia: Una aplicación de números índices," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  11. Ann E. Harrison & Brian J. Aitken, 1999. "Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 605-618, June.
  12. Haddad, Mona & Harrison, Ann, 1993. "Are there positive spillovers from direct foreign investment? : Evidence from panel data for Morocco," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 51-74, October.
  13. Rousseau, Peter L. & Wachtel, Paul, 2002. "Inflation thresholds and the finance-growth nexus," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 777-793, November.
  14. Stephen R. Yeaple & Wolfgang Keller, 2003. "Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth," IMF Working Papers 03/248, International Monetary Fund.
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  1. > Economic History > Regional Economic History > Latin American Economic History > Economic History of Colombia
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Cited by:
  1. Mejía Cubillos, Javier, 2012. "Crecimiento económico de largo plazo en Antioquia, Colombia: Estimación del PIB. 1800-1913
    [Long term economic growth in Antioquia, Colombia: GDP estimates. 1800-1913]
    ," MPRA Paper 40041, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Carlos Esteban Posada & Jorge Andrés Tamayo, 2008. "La transición hacia una economía urbana y el aumento del producto per cápita: el caso colombiano del siglo XX desde la perspectiva de Lucas," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 005111, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  3. Luis Armando Blanco, 2013. "Hirschman: un gran científico social," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 15(28), pages 47-64, January-J.
  4. Jorge Iván González, 2003. "Juan Luis Londoño: ideas para la acción," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 5(8), pages 223-239, January-J.
  5. Mejía Cubillos, Javier, 2011. "¿Puede ser considerado el auge antioqueño de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX un modelo de desarrollo económico local?
    [Can be considered the Antioquian economic takeoff during the second half of
    ," MPRA Paper 35627, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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