Firms and gender: performance differentials between male and female firms
AbstractMany empirical analyses find that the performance of firms headed by women (female firms) varies with respect to those headed by men and that the greatest part of this gap is due to observable characteristics (i.e. gender) related to firms’ characteristics. In this paper we evaluate whether this finding also holds for Italy in terms of productivity and returns.The classification of firms by gender follows that prescribed in Law 215/92; for the purposes of this paper only partnerships and private and public corporations were considered, the sole legal forms for which balance sheets are available. Whilst male firms operate in almost all sectors, female firms tend to cluster in those areas where interpersonal relations are most important, namely the retail sector, restaurants, hotels etc.. In terms of performance, measured by profitability and productivity (and even when controlling by sector and company size), there do not appear to be any significant differences between male and female enterprises.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area in its series Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) with number 184.
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
female entrepreneurship; gender economic differences;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
- L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
- L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-10-02 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2013-10-02 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CFN-2013-10-02 (Corporate Finance)
- NEP-CSE-2013-10-02 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-DEM-2013-10-02 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-EFF-2013-10-02 (Efficiency & Productivity)
- NEP-ENT-2013-10-02 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-SBM-2013-10-02 (Small Business Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074, August.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Du Rietz, Anita, 1999.
"Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis,"
Working Paper Series
521, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
- Gottschalk, Sandra & Niefert, Michaela, 2011. "Gender differences in business success of German start-up firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-019, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.