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Leverage, Balance Sheet Size and Wholesale Funding

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  • H. Evren Damar
  • Césaire A. Meh
  • Yaz Terajima

Abstract

Some evidence points to the procyclicality of leverage among financial institutions leading to aggregate volatility. This procyclicality occurs when financial institutions finance their assets with non-equity funding (i.e., debt financed asset expansions). Wholesale funding is an important source of market-based funding that allows some institutions to quickly adjust their leverage. As such, financial institutions that rely on wholesale funding are expected to have higher degrees of leverage procyclicality. Using high frequency balance sheet data for the universe of banks, this study tries to identify (i) if such a positive link exists between the assets and leverage in Canada, (ii) how wholesale funding plays a role for this link, and (iii) market and macroeconomic factors associated with this link. The findings of the empirical analysis suggest that a strong positive link exists between asset growth and leverage growth, and the use to wholesale funding is an important determinant of this relationship. Furthermore, liquidity of several short-term funding markets matters for procyclicality of leverage.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 10-39.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:10-39

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Keywords: Financial stability; Financial system regulation and policies; Recent economic and financial developments;

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References

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  1. Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010. "Liquidity and leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
  2. Jason Allen & Walter Engert, 2007. "Efficiency and Competition in Canadian Banking," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2007(Summer), pages 33-45.
  3. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," NBER Working Papers 12939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. John Geanakoplos, 2010. "The Leverage Cycle," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2009, Volume 24, pages 1-65 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Jose M. Berrospide & Rochelle M. Edge, 2010. "The Effects of Bank Capital on Lending: What Do We Know, and What Does It Mean?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 6(34), pages 1-50, December.
  6. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
  7. Murillo Campello, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets in Financial Conglomerates: Evidence from Small Bank Responses to Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2773-2805, December.
  8. Huang, Rocco & Ratnovski, Lev, 2010. "The dark side of bank wholesale funding," Working Paper Series 1223, European Central Bank.
  9. Robert Engle, 2001. "GARCH 101: The Use of ARCH/GARCH Models in Applied Econometrics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 157-168, Fall.
  10. John Geanakoplos, 2009. "The Leverage Cycle," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1715R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jan 2010.
  11. Jose M. Berrospide & Rochelle M. Edge, 2010. "The effects of bank capital on lending: What do we know, and what does it mean?," CAMA Working Papers 2010-26, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  12. Blum, Jürg M., 2008. "Why 'Basel II' may need a leverage ratio restriction," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1699-1707, August.
  13. Etienne Bordeleau & Allan Crawford & Christopher Graham, 2009. "Regulatory Constraints on Bank Leverage: Issues and Lessons from the Canadian Experience," Discussion Papers 09-15, Bank of Canada.
  14. Fabio Panetta & Paolo Angelini & Ugo Albertazzi & Francesco Columba & Wanda Cornacchia & Antonio Di Cesare & Andrea Pilati & Carmelo Salleo & Giovanni Santini, 2009. "Financial sector pro-cyclicality: lessons from the crisis," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 44, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
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Cited by:
  1. Franz Alonso Hamann Salcedo & Rafael Hernández & Luisa Fernanda Silva EScobar & Fernando Tenjo Galarza, 2013. "Credit Pro-cyclicality and Bank Balance Sheet in Colombia," Borradores de Economia 762, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  2. Claudia M. Buch & Björn Hilberg & Lena Tonzer, 2014. "Taxing Banks: An Evaluation of the German Bank Levy," CESifo Working Paper Series 4704, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Hryckiewicz, Aneta, 2014. "Originators, traders, neutrals, and traditioners – various banking business models across the globe. Does the business model matter for financial stability?," MPRA Paper 55118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Mahir Binici & Bulent Koksal, 2012. "Is the Leverage of Turkish Banks Procyclical?," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 12(2), pages 11-24.
  5. O'Brien, Martin & Whelan, Karl, 2014. "Changes in Bank Leverage: Evidence from US Bank Holding Companies," Research Technical Papers 01/RT/14, Central Bank of Ireland.
  6. A. Baglioni & E. Beccalli & A. Boitani & A. Monticini, 2013. "Is the leverage of European banks procyclical?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 1251-1266, December.
  7. Ignacio Lozano & Alexander Guarín, 2014. "Fragilidad Bancaria en Colombia: Un Análisis Basado en las Hojas de Balance," Borradores de Economia 813, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  8. Sangjun Jeong & Hueechae Jung, 2013. "Bank Wholesale Funding and Credit Procyclicality:Evidence from Korea," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(5), pages 615-631, September.
  9. Ignacio Lozano & Alexander Guarín, 2014. "Banking Fragility in Colombia: An Empirical Analysis Based on Balance Sheets," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 011145, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.

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