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Creating, Protecting, And Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide In An Era Of Intellectual Property

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Author Info

  • Pardey, Philip G.
  • Koo, Bonwoo
  • Nottenburg, Carol

Abstract

Proponents tout the positive incentive-to-innovate effects of intellectual property rights (IPRs), while others maintain that the expanding subject matter and geographical extent of IPRs are stifling crop research, especially research and development (R&D) dealing with developing-country crop concerns. Much of this debate relies on anecdotes and misleading or incomplete evidence on the extent and nature of the IPRs pertaining to crop technologies, including the jurisdictional extent of the property rights and their practice. In this paper we review the evidence on the scope of agricultural R&D worldwide, provide new data on the structure of crop-related IPRs, and summarize trends on the uptake of proprietary bioengineered crops.

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File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13600
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics in its series Staff Papers with number 13600.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ags:umaesp:13600

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Related research

Keywords: plant patents; utility patents; plant breeders' rights; crop varieties; public and private agricultural R&D; biotechnology; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies;

References

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  1. Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
  2. Alston, Julian M., 2002. "Spillovers," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(3), September.
  3. Graff, Gregory D. & Rausser, Gordon C. & Small, Arthur Adams, 2001. "Agricultural biotechnology's complementary intellectual assets," CUDARE Working Paper Series 925, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
  4. Byerlee, Derek, 1996. "Modern varieties, productivity, and sustainability: Recent experience and emerging challenges," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 697-718, April.
  5. Koo, Bonwoo & Pardey, Philip G. & Qian, Keming & Zhang, Yi, 2003. "The economics of generating and maintaining plant variety rights in China:," EPTD discussion papers 100, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Shenggen Fan & Connie Chan-Kang & Keming Qian & K. Krishnaiah, 2005. "National and international agricultural research and rural poverty: the case of rice research in India and China," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(s3), pages 369-379, November.
  7. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & McBride, William D., 2002. "Adoption Of Bioengineered Crops," Agricultural Economics Reports 33957, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  8. Knudson, Mary K. & Ruttan, Vernon W., 1988. "Research and Development of a Biological Innovation: Commercial Hybrid Wheat," Food Research Institute Studies, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, issue 01.
  9. Philip Pardey & Julian Alston & Connie Chan-Kang & Eduardo Magalhães & Stephen Vosti, 2003. "Assessing and Attributing the Benefits from Varietal Improvement Research: Evidence from Embrapa, Brazil," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies 2003-06, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
  10. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
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  12. Julian M. Alston & Philip G. Pardey & Jennifer S. James & Matthew A. Anderson, 2009. "The Economics of Agricultural R&D," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 537-566, 09.
  13. Runge, C. Ford & Senauer, Benjamin & Pardey, Philip G. & Rosegrant, Mark W. (ed.), 2003. "Ending hunger in our lifetime: Food security and globalization," IFPRI books, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 0-8018-7725-3.
  14. James D. Adams, 2002. "Comparative localization of academic and industrial spillovers," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(3), pages 253-278, July.
  15. Alston, Julian M. & Wyatt, T. J. & Pardey, Philip G. & Marra, Michele C. & Chan-Kang, Connie, 2000. "A meta-analysis of rates of return to agricultural R & D: ex pede Herculem?," Research reports 113, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  16. Pardey, Philip G. & Beintema, Nienke M., 2002. "Slow Magic: Agricultural R&D A Century After Mendel," Working Papers, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy 14364, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
  17. Binenbaum, Eran & Pardey, Philip G. & Zambrano, Patricia & Nottenburg, Carol & Wright, Brian D., 2000. "South-North trade, intellectual property jurisdictions, and freedom to operate in agricultural research on staple crops:," EPTD discussion papers 70, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  18. Alan L. Olmstead & Paul W. Rhode, 2002. "The Red Queen and the Hard Reds: Productivity Growth in American Wheat, 1800-1940," NBER Working Papers 8863, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Alston, Julian M. & Venner, Raymond J., 2002. "The effects of the US Plant Variety Protection Act on wheat genetic improvement," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 527-542, May.
  20. Wesley M Cohen & Richard R Nelson & John P Walsh, 2003. "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (Or Not)," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000624, David K. Levine.
  21. Binenbaum, Eran & et al, 2003. "South-North Trade, Intellectual Property Jurisdictions, and Freedom to Operate in Agricultural Research on Staple Crops," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 309-35, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Wright, Brian D. & Pardey, Philip G. & Nottenburg, Carol & Koo, Bonwoo, 2007. "Agricultural Innovation: Investments and Incentives," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  2. Bonwoo Koo & Philip G. Pardey & Keming Qian & Yi Zhang, 2006. "An option perspective on generating and maintaining plant variety rights in China," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(1), pages 35-48, 07.
  3. Kingwell, Ross S., 2005. "Institutional Change and Plant Variety Provisions in Australia," Australasian Agribusiness Review, University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, vol. 13.

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