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A Re-Examination Of Event Studies Applied To Challenged Horizontal Mergers

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Author Info

  • Hopkins, Yvette S.
  • Connor, John M.

Abstract

A growing body of empirical studies have been interpreted as support for a laissez-faire policy towards mergers. These "event studies" examine the reaction of stock market prices of firms that announce an agreement to merge. The type ~f reaction reveals whether a merger is motivated by a desire for market power or purely to improve market efficiency. In this paper, a version of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is applied to determine if abnormal returns are earned by rivals of 22 pairs of firms whose attempted horizontal mergers were challenged by the federal antitrust agencies. At most eight, and possibly only five, of the cases were found to be motivated by efficiency in seeking merger, and at most six, and possibly only one, were motivated by market power; the rest were inconclusive. The event-study technique is highly flawed for the study of business-regulation effects. Numerous unrealistic assumptions, inappropriate data constraints, and questionable interpretations hamper .the application of this technique to policy analysis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance in its series Working Papers with number 116105.

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Date of creation: Jun 1992
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Handle: RePEc:ags:rpspwp:116105

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Postal: Draper Hall, College of Food and Natural Resources, Amherst, MA 01003
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Web page: http://www.umass.edu/ne165/
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Keywords: Industrial Organization;

References

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  1. Eckbo, B Espen & Wier, Peggy, 1985. "Antimerger Policy under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act: A Reexamination of the Market Power Hypothesis," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(1), pages 119-49, April.
  2. Halpern, Paul, 1983. " Corporate Acquisitions: A Theory of Special Cases? A Review of Event Studies Applied to Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 297-317, May.
  3. Fama, Eugene F, et al, 1969. "The Adjustment of Stock Prices to New Information," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 10(1), pages 1-21, February.
  4. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
  5. Eckbo, B. Espen, 1983. "Horizontal mergers, collusion, and stockholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 241-273, April.
  6. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 110.
  7. Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
  8. Stigler, George J, 1982. "The Economists and the Problem of Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 1-11, May.
  9. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 351.
  10. Ellert, James C, 1976. "Mergers, Antitrust Law Enforcement and Stockholder Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 715-32, May.
  11. Stillman, Robert, 1983. "Examining antitrust policy towards horizontal mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 225-240, April.
  12. Mandelker, Gershon, 1974. "Risk and return: The case of merging firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 303-335, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ding, John Y. & Caswell, Julie A. & Rogers, Richard T., 1993. "Restructuring's Effect on Related and Unrelated Diversification Among Top Food Manufacturing Firms in the 1980s," Working Papers 116118, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  2. Ding, John Y. & Caswell, Julie A. & Zhou, Furen, 1997. "Relatedness And Performance: A Reexamination Of The Diversification-Performance Link," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 28(1), February.
  3. Bhuyan, Sanjib & Cotterill, Ronald W., 1994. "Countervailing Power and Seller Performance in U.S. Food and Tobacco Manufacturing Industries," Working Papers 116163, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  4. Cotterill, Ronald W. & Pinkerton, Don C., 1993. "Motives for Mergers in Food Manufacturing," Working Papers 116111, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  5. Caswell, Julie A. & Kleinschmit, Jaana K., 1993. "Economic Criteria for Settling Federalism Disputes with an Application to Food Safety Regulation," Working Papers 116114, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  6. Wen, Hong & Haller, Lawrence E., 1994. "Price Determination in the Bottled Water Industry: A Case Study of Poland Spring," Working Papers 116165, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  7. Haji Ali Beigi, Maryam & Budzinski, Oliver, 2012. "On the use of event studies to evaluate economic policy decisions: A note of caution," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 80, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
  8. Steahr, Thomas E. & Roberts, Tanya, 1993. "Microbial Foodborne Disease: Hospitalizations, Medical Costs and Potential Demand for Safer Food," Working Papers 116110, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  9. Langan, Glenn E. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 1994. "Estimating Brand Level Demand Elasticities and Measuring Market Power for Regular Carbonated Soft Drinks," Working Papers 116168, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
  10. Budzinski, Oliver, 2012. "Impact evaluation of merger control decisions," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 75, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
  11. Cotterill, Ronald W. & Salih, Hachim M., 1992. "Testing For Risk Premiums In The Wheat-Flour Subsector," Working Papers 116109, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.

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