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Effects of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage and Subsidizing Milk: Beverage Consumption, Nutrition, and Obesity among US Children

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  • Lin, Biing-Hwan
  • Smith, Travis A.
  • Lee, Jonq-Ying

Abstract

Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a means to improve U.S. diet and health and generate revenue to address obesity-related issues. A related concern is that children’s intake of SSBs, a third that of milk consumption in the late 1970s, now equals milk consumption. Displacing milk by SSBs may shortchange the buildup of bone mass, increasing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis in later life. Accordingly, we examine the effects that a 20- percent SSB tax and a 20-percent milk price subsidy would have on the diet and health of American children. We estimated US beverage demand systems and used the estimated demand elasticities to examine the impacts of the hypothetical SSB tax and milk subsidy. Our results suggest that a 20-percent tax-induced increase in soda price alone would reduce calorie intakes by 40 calories a day among children, lowering the obesity rate from 16.1 percent to 13.4 percent and the overweight rate from 32 percent to 26.9 percent. When a 20-percent price subsidy for milk is bundled with the SSB tax, children would on average decrease their calorie intake (21 calories a day) and increase their calcium intake, but the overweight and obesity rates would actually increase by around 2 percent. The seemingly contradiction between the two averages, lower calories and higher obesity, is due to the fact that the majority of children (90 percent) remain unchanged in their weight classification under the price interventions but on average reduce their calorie intake. Six percent of children increase their calorie intake and gain enough weight to cross the overweight threshold, whereas four percent of children decrease their calorie intake to improve from being overweight to healthy weight. Therefore, when averaging the effects of the price interventions, we found a decrease in calorie intake and higher overweight and obesity rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists & Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 115th Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, September 15-17, 2010, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany with number 116448.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:ags:eaa115:116448

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Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB); soda tax; milk subsidy; beverage demand; and obesity; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; C30; D12; Q18;

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References

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  1. Lin, Biing-Hwan & Yen, Steven T. & Dong, Diansheng & Smallwood, David M., 2009. "Economic Incentives For Dietary Improvement Among Food Stamp Recipients," 2009 Pre-Conference Workshop, August 16, 2009, Diet and Obesity: Role of Prices and Policies 53339, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Dhar, Tirtha Pratim & Chavas, Jean-Paul & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2003. "An Economic Analysis of Product Differentiation under Latent Separability," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 21892, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  3. Chouinard Hayley H & Davis David E & LaFrance Jeffrey T & Perloff Jeffrey M, 2007. "Fat Taxes: Big Money for Small Change," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-30, June.
  4. Berndt, Ernst R & Savin, N Eugene, 1975. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing in Singular Equation Systems with Autoregressive Disturbances," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(5-6), pages 937-57, Sept.-Nov.
  5. Pofahl, Geoffrey M. & Capps, Oral, Jr. & Clauson, Annette L., 2005. "Demand for Non-Alcoholic Beverages: Evidence From The ACNielsen Home Scan Panel," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19441, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  6. Steven T. Yen & Biing-Hwan Lin & David M. Smallwood & Margaret Andrews, 2004. "Demand for nonalcoholic beverages: The case of low-income households," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(3), pages 309-321.
  7. Fred Kuchler & Abebayehu Tegene & J. Michael Harris, 2005. "Taxing Snack Foods: Manipulating Diet Quality or Financing Information Programs?," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 27(1), pages 4-20.
  8. Brown, Mark G. & Lee, Jonq-Ying, 2007. "Impacts of Promotional Tactics in a Conditional Demand System for Beverages," Journal of Agribusiness, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia, vol. 25(2).
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