Income polarization in Brazil, 2001-2011: A distributional analysis using PNAD data
AbstractThis paper applies a non-parametric tool, the “relative distribution”, to identify patterns of changes in Brazil’s household income distribution over the period 2001-2011. Despite the sharp decline in income inequality recently experienced by the country, we are able to document an increased income polarization, which has particularly affected households below the median. The results call directly into question the future sustainability and equity of existing social programs dealing with the unequal distribution of resources.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA) in its series 2013 Second Congress, June 6-7, 2013, Parma, Italy with number 149891.
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Brazil; income distribution; relative distribution; polarization; International Development; Political Economy; C14; D31; D63;
Other versions of this item:
- Fabio Clementi & Francesco Schettino, 2013. "Income polarization in Brazil, 2001-2011: A distributional analysis using PNAD data," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(3), pages 1796-1815.
- D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
- C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Daniel J. Henderson & Christopher F. Parmeter & R. Robert Russell, 2008. "Modes, weighted modes, and calibrated modes: evidence of clustering using modality tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(5), pages 607-638.
- Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares, 2012. "Bolsa Família, its Design, its Impacts and Possibilities for the Future," Working Papers 89, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
- Erik Alencar de Figueiredo & Sabino Porto Junior, 2012. "Persistência das Desigualdades Regionais no Brasil- Polarização e Divergência," SÃ©rie Textos para DiscussÃ£o (Working Papers) 7, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia - PPGE, Universidade Federal da Paraíba.
- José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1994.
"On the Measurement of Polarization,"
Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 819-51, July.
- Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 1991. "On the Measurement of Polarization," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 18, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Esteban, J. & Ray, D., 1993. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 221.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Fernando Salgueiro Perobelli & Eduardo Amaral Haddad & Vinicius De Almeida Vale, 2014.
"Assessing The Brazilian Regionaleconomic Structure: A Spatial Output Decomposition Analysis,"
Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting]
170, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
- Fernando Perobelli & Eduardo Haddad & Vinicius Almeida, 2012. "Assessing the Brazilian Regional Economic Structure: a spatial output decomposition analysis," ERSA conference papers ersa12p896, European Regional Science Association.
- Alexandre Rands Barros, 2011. "Desigualdades Regionais no Brasil: Natureza, causas, origens e soluções," Working Papers 63, Datamétrica Consultoria Econômica, revised 2011.
- Bianchi, Marco, 1997. "Testing for Convergence: Evidence from Non-parametric Multimodality Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 393-409, July-Aug..
- Charles I. Jones, .
"On the Evolution of the World Income Distribution,"
97009, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
- Gradin, Carlos, 2000. "Polarization by Sub-populations in Spain, 1973-91," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(4), pages 457-74, December.
- Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2597, October.
- Chiara Gigliarano & Karl Mosler, 2009. "Constructing indices of multivariate polarization," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 435-460, December.
- Chakravarty, Sanya R. & Majumdar, A. & Roy, Sonali, 2007.
"A Treatment of Absolute Indices of Polarization,"
Staff General Research Papers
12811, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Maria Grazia Pittau & Roberto Zelli & Paul A. Johnson, 2010. "Mixture Models, Convergence Clubs, And Polarization," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(1), pages 102-122, 03.
- Juan G. Rodríguez & Rafael Salas, . "Extended Bi-Polarization And Inequality Measures," Working Papers 10-03 Classification-JEL , Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.
- Leonardo Gasparini & Nora Lustig, 2011.
"The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Latin America,"
1110, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
- Leonardo Gasparini & Nora Lustig, 2011. "The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Latin America," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0118, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Leonardo Gasparini & Nora Lustig, 2011. "The rise and fall of income inequality in Latin America," Working Papers 213, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Quah, Danny T, 1996. " Convergence Empirics across Economies with (Some) Capital Mobility," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 95-124, March.
- Wolfson, Michael C, 1994. "When Inequalities Diverge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 353-58, May.
- repec:ese:iserwp:2004-05 is not listed on IDEAS
- Chakravarty, Satya R & Majumder, Amita, 2001. "Inequality, Polarisation and Welfare: Theory and Applications," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 1-13, March.
- Philippe Van Kerm, 2003.
"Adaptive kernel density estimation,"
United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003
15, Stata Users Group.
- X. Zhang & R. Kanbur, 2001.
"What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 85-98.
- Zhang, Siao-Bo & Kanbur, Ravi, 1999. "What Difference Do Polarization Measures Make? An Application To China," Working Papers 7224, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
- Kakwani, Nanak, 1993. "Poverty and Economic Growth with Application to Cote d'Ivoire," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 39(2), pages 121-39, June.
- Luis F. Lopez-Calva & Sonia Rocha, 2012. "Exiting Belindia? Lesson from the Recent Decline in Income Inequality in Brazil," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12808, The World Bank.
- Maria Grazia Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2006. "Trends in Income Distribution in Italy: A Non-Parametric 90 and a Semi-Parametric Analysis," Journal of Income Distribution, Journal of Income Distribution, vol. 15(I), pages 90-118, December.
- Ambra Poggi & Jacques Silber, 2008.
"On Polarization and Mobility: A look at polarization in the wage-career profile in Italy,"
LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series
84, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
- Ambra Poggi & Jacques Silber, 2010. "On Polarization And Mobility: A Look At Polarization In The Wage-Career Profile In Italy," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(1), pages 123-140, 03.
- Ambra Poggi & Jacques Silber, 2009. "On polarization and mobility: A look at polarization in the wage-career profile in Italy," Working Papers 138, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Johnson, Paul A., 2000.
"A nonparametric analysis of income convergence across the US states,"
Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 219-223, November.
- Johnson, Paul, 1999. "A Nonparametric Analysis of Income Convergence Across the US States," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 46, Vassar College Department of Economics.
- Wang, You-Qiang & Tsui, Kai-Yuen, 2000. " Polarization Orderings and New Classes of Polarization Indices," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 2(3), pages 349-63.
- Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega & Ana Urrutia & Henar Diez, 2008.
"Unit-consistency and polarization of income distributions,"
100, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- M-super-a Casilda Lasso de la Vega & Ana Urrutia & Henar Díez, 2010. "Unit Consistency And Bipolarization Of Income Distributions," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(1), pages 65-83, 03.
- Maria Grazia Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2004. "Testing for changing shapes of income distribution: Italian evidence in the 1990s from kernel density estimates," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 415-430, 05.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2004.
"Accounting for income distribution trends: A density function decomposition approach,"
IRISS Working Paper Series
2004-07, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Stephen Jenkins & Philippe Kerm, 2005. "Accounting for income distribution trends: A density function decomposition approach," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 43-61, April.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2004. "Accounting for Income Distribution Trends: A Density Function Decomposition Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 1141, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fernando Borraz & Nicolás Gonzalez Pampillón & Máximo Rossi, 2011.
"Polarization and the Middle Class,"
Documentos de Trabajo (working papers)
2011, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Fernando Borraz & Nicolás González & Máximo Rossi, 2013. "Polarization and the Middle Class in Uruguay," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 50(2), pages 289-326, November.
- Jean-Yves Duclos & Joan Esteban & Debraj Ray, 2003.
"Polarization: Concepts, Measurement, Estimation,"
46, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Joan Esteban & Carlos Gradín & Debraj Ray, 2007. "An Extension of a Measure of Polarization, with an application to the income distribution of five OECD countries," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, April.
- Levy, Frank & Murnane, Richard J, 1992. "U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1333-81, September.
- James Foster & Michael Wolfson, 2010. "Polarization and the decline of the middle class: Canada and the U.S," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 247-273, June.
- World Bank, 2004. "Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14913, October.
- Wolfson, Michael C, 1997. "Divergent Inequalities: Theory and Empirical Results," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 43(4), pages 401-21, December.
- F. Daniel Hidalgo & Suresh Naidu & Simeon Nichter & Neal Richardson, 2010. "Economic Determinants of Land Invasions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(3), pages 505-523, August.
- Thomas Lemieux, 2002. "Decomposing changes in wage distributions: a unified approach," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 646-688, November.
- Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega & Ana Marta Urrutia, 2006. "An Alternative Formulation of the Esteban-Gradín-Ray Extended Measure of Polarization," Journal of Income Distribution, Journal of Income Distribution, vol. 15(I), pages 42-54, December.
- Pier Luigi Conti & Maria Grazia Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2006. "Metodi non parametrici nell'analisi della distribuzione del reddito: problemi empirici ed aspetti metodologici," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 96(3), pages 195-242, May-June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.